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Biofloc Technology—Third Edition!


In 2009, the World Aquaculture Society published Biofloc Technology, a book authored by Dr. Yoram Avnimelech that reviewed the status of biofloc technology in aquaculture.  The first edition quickly sold out, so in 2012, a corrected and expanded second editions was published in consultation with Dr. Craig Browdy, manager of WAS publications.  Two years later, in 2014, the second edition sold out, so in consultation with Dr. Joseph Tomasso, WAS book editor, WAS decided to publish a third edition, which has been updated and re-edited to contain the vast amount of information on biofloc technology that has accumulated over the past two years.


Both the scientist and the layman will find this book useful.  For the scientist, biofloc chemistry and water quality parameters are neatly detailed with scientific notation and backed up with extensive references and suggestions for additional research.  For the layman, each chapter begins with a brief preview of what’s going to be covered in the chapter, followed by real world examples, and ending with a summary of the important points and lists of needed research.  The book’s 258 pages are loaded with tables (28) and graphs, diagrams and pictures (63, black and white and color).  Each of the chapters (19) ends with a list of references (altogether 277).


“The ABCs of Pond Management” (Chapter 18) is new to the third edition.  It was written in response to readers of the first two editions who asked for information on how to get started in biofloc farming.  It covers: starting a biofloc pond, feeding the pond, sludge control, monitoring the pond, responding to problems and controlling nitrogen.


Also new to the third edition is a list of the contributing editors that includes their research interests and contact information:


• David Kuhn (USA)

• Addison Lawrence (USA)

• Andrew Ray (USA)

• Peter De Schryver (Belgium)

• Peter Bossier (Belgium)

• Maurício Emerenciano (Tahiti, French Polynesia)

• Gabriela Gaxiola (Mexico)

• Nyan Taw (The World)


Chapter Titles


• Why Do We Need New Technologies for Aquaculture?

• Overview of Aquaculture Systems

• Microbial Processes and Communities Relevant to Aquaculture

• Biofloc Systems

• The Nitrogen Syndrome—Problem and Solutions

• Using Biofloc Technology to Control Inorganic Nitrogen Buildup

• Feeding with Bioflocs

• Ex-Situ Biofloc Technology

• Optimizing Microbial Activity in Extensive Ponds

• Aeration, Aerators and Aerator Deployment

• BFT Effects on Fish and Shrimp Disease

• Pond Construction

• Field Experience

• Biofloc Technology for Super-Intensive Shrimp Culture

• The Biology and Biotechnology Behind Bioflocs

• Biofloc Technology Applied To Shrimp Broodstock

• Biofloc Technology and Sustainable Aquaculture Development

• ABC of Pond Management

• Final Words

• Glossary and Abbreviations





In Chapter 8, “Ex-Situ Biofloc Technology” (Using Bioreactors To Treat Aquaculture Effluents While Producing Bioflocs for Shrimp Feed), Drs. David D. Kuhn and Addison L. Lawrence introduce the chapter with this summary (edited for the third edition by Yoram Avnimelech, the book’s primary author).


Shrimp farming has traditionally relied on fishmeal for the formulation of a nutritionally complete diet.  Fishmeal is becoming more expensive, and the oceans are being over exploited due to an increase in demand as the global human population continues to grow.  This is prompting the aquaculture industry to investigate and implement alternative sources of protein to replace less sustainable protein ingredients in aquaculture feeds.  Traditional alternative proteins are derived from plants like soybeans.  Recent developments in research are demonstrating that yeast-based and biofloc-based proteins are suitable replacements for fishmeal in aquaculture diets.  This chapter covers biofloc-based proteins in shrimp diets.  Since bioflocs can be produced while treating aquaculture effluents in external biological reactors, bioflocs may have an additional advantage over plant-based proteins.  This is because we are effectively converting a waste (dirty water high in pollutants such as solids and nitrogen) into a valuable resource for the industry.  This biofloc technology is in the experimental stage, but has shown promise.  Accordingly, this chapter outlines research thus far and the potential for this technology to be helpful for the aquaculture industry.


Further verification and development of this approach was obtained since the publication of the 2d edition of the book.  Extensive research efforts by Australian scientists led to the development of a product made of a selection of marine bacteria (Novacq™) that can replace fishmeal and increase yields of Penaeus monodon by about 30% over conventional feeds.  More development in this direction is expected.


Information: Yoram Avnimelech, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel (email agyoram@technion.ac.il, webpage http://www.technion.ac.il/en/).


Information: Carol Mendoza, The World Aquaculture Society, 143 J.M. Parker Coliseum, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA (phone 1-225-578-3137, fax 1-225-578-3493, email carolm@was.org, web page https://www.was.org).  The book sells for $50 (WAS members) and $70 (nonmembers) and can be purchased at the World Aquaculture Society’s Website (https://www.was.org/shopping/shopexd.asp?ID=537).  It will also be on display and for sale at the World Aquaculture Society’s annual meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA (February 19–22, 2015).


Sources: 1. Biofloc Technology—A Practical Guide Book (Third Edition, 2015).  Yoram Avnimelech (with Peter De-Schryver, Mauricio Emmereciano, Dave Kuhn, Andrew Ray and Nyan Taw).  The World Aquaculture Society.  2015.  2. Bob Rosenberry, Shrimp News International, January 8, 2015.

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