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Friday, October 22, 2010

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Brunei Bans Some Shrimp Imports to
Protect Its Emerging Shrimp Farming Industry



In September 2009, to prevent new shrimp diseases from infecting the country’s 230 hectares of shrimp ponds, the Fisheries Department banned imports of all live shrimp and imports of uncooked/fresh western white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei).


In early October 2010, it began confiscating imported fresh white shrimp at wet markets.  To date, it has confiscated five lots of white shrimp.  The penalty for the first offence is $500, and it jumps to $1,000 for the second offence.


Hjh Hasnah Ibrahim, Director of Fisheries Department, said the government and private entrepreneurs have invested millions of dollars in shrimp farming and in developing specific-pathogen-free (SPF) populations of the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and the western blue shrimp (P. stylirostris), called “Rostris” in Brunei.  They do not want to expose those stocks to the viruses on imported shrimp.


Before the banning, the department conducted an import risk analysis to identify the diseases associated with shrimp imports and to determine which diseases might become problems.  The analysis indicated that one of the main risks of disease entry was the importation of fresh shrimp that are sold at wet markets.  Inspections of wet markets found direct pathways for imported shrimp heads, shells and their transport water to enter the marine environment via wastewater drains that flowed directly into local rivers and coastal waters.


To monitor shrimp diseases, the Fisheries Department set up the Aquatic Animal Health Centre (AAHC), which has a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) lab capable of detecting the following shrimp viruses.


Whitespot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)

Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV)

Monodon Baculovirus (MBV)

Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV)

Yellowhead Virus (YHV)

Gill-associated Virus (GAV)

Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV)

Baculovirus Penaei (BP)

Hepatopancreactic Parvo-like Virus (HPV)

Mourilyan Virus (MoV)


Farmed shrimp in Brunei are free of the above viruses, but WSSV and IHHNV have been detected in imported shrimp products.  Other diseases such as TSV and IMNV are known to exist in Southeast Asia, but have never been detected in Brunei.


Other countries in the region, Australia and Indonesia, for example, also regulate shrimp imports to protect their shrimp farming industries.


Sources: 1.  Ban on Prawn Import Prevents Disease.  Azlan Othman.  October 11, 2010.  2. Bob Rosenberry, Shrimp News International, October 19, 2010.


Country Reports 


Crab Farming


Golden Crab Enterprise, Sdn., Bhd., plans to ship its farmed, soft-shell crabs to Singapore and eventually to Japan and China, said Pengiran Haris, managing director of the venture, during the opening ceremony of the farm, which uses a recirculation water system and 10,692 culture boxes to produce 2.14 tons of crabs.


To finance the venture, Golden Crab sold the culture boxes in sets of 100 to various companies and private individuals.


Currently, juvenile crabs for stocking the culture boxes are sourced from the wild or imported from neighboring countries.  The Brunei Fisheries Department said it will provide technical assistance and a site for a hatchery to produce juvenile crabs.


Source: FIS United States.  Farmed Soft Shell Crabs to Hit the Overseas Market.  Natalia Real (  September 29, 2010.


La Niña Usually Gains Strength over the Winter


On October 7, 2010, the U.S. Climate Prediction Center reported:


Consistent with nearly all forecast models, La Niña is expected to gain strength through November–January and last at least until March 2011, and then begin to weaken.


In the United States, La Niña has already affected the weather, delivering above-average precipitation in the Pacific Northwest and below-average precipitation across the southern tier of the country.


The next ENSO Diagnostics Discussion is scheduled for November 4, 2010.  To receive an email notification of it, send an email message to


Source: Climate Prediction Center.  El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Diagnostic Discussion (a downloadable PDF or Word file).  October 7, 2010.


Shrimp Farm For Sale


Shannon Chiriboga ( We have a shrimp farm for sale in La Tolla, Ecuador.  If you’re interested in buying it, or running it, please contact us at the email address above.  It also has a ranch with fruit trees.


Source: The Shrimp List (a mailing list for shrimp farmers).  Subject: Ecuador Aquaculture Show Oct 11–13, October 9, 2010.


Shrimp Farmers Challenge CP Prima’s Management on Another Front




The thousands of shrimp farmers that make up CP Prima, the largest shrimp farm in the world, are beginning to challenge CP Prima’s management because it has failed to deliver on some of its promises.  Last week Shrimp News reported on CP Prima’s failure to allow shrimp farmers to purchase their ponds and manage them as independent farms.  Called the “smallholder switch”, that promise was never fulfilled.  In this report, farmers say another promise, the one to “revitalize” (renovate and maintain) their farms, has only been partially fulfilled.


On October 7, 2010, shrimp farmers in Tulang Bawang, Lampung, demanded that the Finance Ministry review a revitalization agreement reached three years ago with CP Prima.  The farmers say they are suffering losses because the company is not honoring its deal to revitalize their ponds.


Syukri J. Bintoro, secretary of the Tiger Shrimp Plasma Growers (P3UW), said only 5 of 16 blocks in the Dipasena Citra Darmaja shrimp farm have been revitalized under a 2007 agreement that required Aruna Wijaya Sakti, the new name of the farm, a subsidiary of Central Proteinaprima (CP Prima), to revitalize all of them by the end of 2008.  He said most of the farmers were using their own funds to revitalize their ponds, while still being forced to purchase much-needed supplies from AWS.  Many of the shrimp farmers owe more than $7,800 to CP Prima.  “The company has failed to fulfill most of our needs, [and we have to deal with] low-quality plastic and constant blackouts, which affects our production,” Syukri said.


In 2007, AWS bought the shrimp farm from Dipasena Citra Darmaja, which had been bailed out by the government and was effectively under state control.  The purchase agreement required the company to revitalize the shrimp farms.


CP Prima, a subsidiary of Thailand’s Charoen Pokphand Group, has been struggling financially.  In April 2010, it failed to meet a government-imposed deadline to find a buyer for its shrimp farms or to borrow the money needed to revitalize them.  Syukri said that if the government did not solve the problems immediately, the country would lose income from shrimp exports and the farmers would be reduced to poverty.


George Basoeki, corporate communications manager at CP Prima, said accusations that the company was not serious about addressing the problems were not true.  He said that since the company assumed control of the farms, total production had risen to 41,071 tons per year, up from 10,648 tons in 2007.  He also said the total income of the farmers had risen by almost 200 percent.


Source: Jakarta Globe.  Farmers Say Shrimp Giant CP Prima Not Honoring Deal.  Fidelis Satriastanti.  October 7, 2010.


Shrimp Feeds with No Marine Products—Someday


From Abstract: This study evaluated the replacement of marine fish oil (MFO) with alternative oils in a plant-based diet.  Penaeus vannamei juveniles (1.55 grams) were stocked in 650-liter circular tanks at 26 shrimp per liter and fed 13 experimental diets over a 58-day growth trial.  Diets were formulated with soybean oil (SO) as replacement for MFO at inclusion ratios of 100:0, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70, 20:80 and 10:90 (MFO:SO).


Another series of diets was formulated to keep n-3/n-6 ratios close to the ratio attained at 50% MFO replacement while removing MFO.  This was done by increasing linolenic acid content through the use of linseed oil (LO), resulting in the following MFO:SO:LO ratios, 40:53.4:6.6, 30:56.9:13.1, 20:60:20 and 10:63.7:26.3.  Three additional diets were evaluated which included a high LO (10:90 as MFO:LO) and a high soybean oil diet using a low linolenic acid soybean oil (LLSO) at a 10:90 ratio of MFO:LLSO.  The final diet was a commercial diet that served as a reference.


The results showed no statistically significant differences in final mean weight, growth, survival or FCR values of shrimp fed the various diets!


Fatty acid (FA) profiles of tail muscle from shrimp fed the various lipid sources, in general, conformed to the lipids of the feed.  Shrimp fed a diet with 19.81 mg of linolenic acid per gram of diet had the highest amount of this FA in their tail muscle (5.61 mg g−1 wet tissue) and a relatively high n-3/n-6 ratio of 1.15, but at the same time, practically the lowest content of eicosapentaenoic (4.07 mg g−1 wet tissue) and docosahexaenoic (2.04 mg g−1 wet tissue) acid among the dietary treatments.  This response is typical for animals that cannot elongate and desaturate polyunsaturated into highly unsaturated FA (HUFA).


Because optimal dietary approach for humans is to consume preformed n-3 HUFA by eating seafood, it would be best for farmed shrimp to retain the high levels of n-3 HUFA and high n-3/n-6 ratios as found in wild caught shrimp.


Source: Aquaculture.  Replacement of Fish Oil in Plant Based Diets for Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  Mayra L. González-Félix, (, Departamento de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas, Universidad de Sonora, Edificio 7-G, Blvd. Luis Donaldo Colosio, Sahuaripa y Reforma, Col. Centro, C.P. 83000, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico), Fabio Soller Dias da Silva, D. Allen Davis, Tzachi M. Samocha, Timothy C. Morris, Josh S. Wilkenfeld and Martin Perez-Velazquez.  No Date, a corrected proof, to be published soon.  Aquaculture’s website on October 19, 2010.


The Provimi Feed Group Reaches an Agreement to Acquire NASSA


Headquartered in The Netherlands, The Provimi Group, a global leader in animal nutrition, has reached an agreement to acquire NASSA, a leading swine and shrimp feed producer in Mexico.


NASSA, Nutricion y Alimentos de Sonora, S.A., produces premixes, starter feeds, concentrates and a full line of growout feeds for swine and shrimp.  Located in Ciudad Obregón, in the State of Sonora, it has 265 employees, three production plants, five warehouses and supplies feeds throughout Mexico.


Mexico, the fourth largest feed market in the world (after the USA, China and Brazil), has an estimated population of 110 million, and its GDP has grown by an average of 4% a year over the last 20 years.


Source: Feedstuffs.  Provimi Acquires Mexican Animal Nutrition Group.  October 6, 2010.


The Journal Aquaculture


The most recent issue of the journal Aquaculture (Volume 308, Issues 3-4, October 21, 2010) contains several research reports that shrimp farmers should find interesting:


Pages 71-74: Prevalence of Shrimp Viruses in Wild Penaeus monodon from Brunei Darussalam (Kerry Claydon, Rahimah Awg Haji Tahir, Hajijah Mohd Said, Mahani Haji Lakim and Wanidawati Tamat).


Pages 75-81: Effect of AquaVacTM VibromaxTM on Size and Health of Post Larva Stage of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Black Tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (J. Wongtavatchai, M.V. López-Dóriga and M.J. Francis).


Pages 82-88: Gill-associated virus and recombinant protein vaccination in Penaeus monodon (Darren J. Underwood, Jeff A. Cowley, Melony J. Sellars, Andrew C. Barnes, Marielle C.W. van Hulten and Karyn N. Johnson).


Pages 116-123: Gonadal Development in Male and Female Domesticated Whiteleg Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, in Relation to Age and Weight (Bertha P. Ceballos-Vázquez, Elena Palacios, Jesús Aguilar-Villavicencio and Ilie S. Racotta).


Pages 166-173: Apparent Digestibility of Dry Matter, Protein and Essential Amino Acid in Marine Feedstuffs for Juvenile Whiteleg Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Martín Terrazas-Fierro, Roberto Civera-Cerecedo, Lilia Ibarra-Martínez, Ernesto Goytortúa-Bores, Margarita Herrera-Andrade and Armando Reyes-Becerra).


Source: Aquaculture.  Volume 308, Issues 3-4, October 21, 2010.

United States



The Autumn 2010 issue of AQUAFEED, a quarterly, online magazine that covers advances in feed formulation and processing (subscribe for free at the home page of, contains several articles on shrimp hatchery feeds.  Here’s a sampling:


Unique Challenges: Broodstock Feed Manufacture (Peter Hutchinson reviews the state of broodstock feed manufacturing).


A Novel Way to Feed Artemia (yolk platelets may replace live Artemia).  Excerpt Below!


Diatom Algae-Based Food Chain (an eco-friendly and economical way to feed fish and shrimp).


Separt: Innovative, Sustainable and Economical Automation of Live Food Production in Hatcheries (one-step separation of hatched nauplii from cyst shells).


New Hatchery Products From INVE.


Corn Protein Concentrate (a new tool for fishmeal replacement).


Excerpt from Yolk Platelets Article


It is well known that Artemia cysts contain an embryo whose development has been arrested at the gastrula stage.  This embryo is composed of a small number of cells and is surrounded by a huge number of very tiny packed granules of nutrient reserves called yolk platelets.  Yolk platelets are very regular bodies measuring 3 μm in width by 5 μm in length with a disk-like structure at both ends.  They are extremely stable in water and contain virtually all the nutrients needed by developing Artemia.  When properly extracted and processed into the right particle size, these yolk platelets show nutritional properties similar to—or better than—live Artemia nauplii when fed to shrimp larvae under commercial hatcheries conditions.  Temperature and pH and are the key to preserving the integrity of the yolk platelets.


Yolk platelets are exceptionally stable in the slightly acid (pH <6.5) conditions found in aquatic diets, but they spontaneously dissolve in the alkaline conditions and higher pH (8.5) levels prevailing in the shrimp larval gut.  Yolk platelets are the ideal nutrient source for larval shrimp because their digestion does not rely on the presence of larval enzymes.


Information: Bernard Devresse, BernAqua, NV Hagelberg 3, B-2259 Olen, Belgium (phone +32-[14]-282-520, email


Source:  AQUAFEED (a quarterly, e-magazine that covers advances in feed formulation and processing).  Editor, Suzi Fraser Dominy (  Vitellus: A Novel Way to Feed Artemia Cysts.  Bernard Devresse.  Autumn 2010.

United States

Missouri—GAA and ACC Together Again


According to Peter Redmond (, the Global Aquaculture Alliance’s Vice President of Development for Best Aquaculture Practices, the Aquaculture Certification Council is again part of GAA and no longer a stand-alone body.  ACC still manages the certification program for GAA, but it no longer does any auditing.  It has selected NSF and Global Trust to do the auditing.  Both are ISO 65 compliant.


Source: AQUA Culture AsiaPacific (Editor/Publisher, Zuridah Merican, email  BAP Certification Standards.  Volume 8, Number 5, Page 38, September/October 2010.

United States

South Carolina—Proposed Shrimp Farm


On June 24, 2010, Wert-Berater, Inc., a provider of feasibility studies for USDA loan guarantee programs, was hired to provide a feasibility study for a shrimp farm in the southeastern United States.  Due to confidentiality requirements, the name of the client was not made public, but now the location for the proposed farm has been disclosed: Jasper County, South Carolina.  Here’s some additional information on the project that Shrimp News received from Wert-Berater, Inc.


The Waddell Mariculture Research and Development Center in Bluffton, South Carolina, has been conducting ongoing research on super-intensive biofloc raceways since 2001.  The proposed farm has signed an agreement with the University of South Carolina Research Foundation to commercialize the process developed at Waddell and other labs, and has retained Al Stokes, the manager of Waddell, as a consultant on the project.


The proposed super-intensive biofloc facility will be one of the largest, if not the largest, project of its type in the world.  The total estimated project cost: $5,403,783.  It will use a raceway concept developed by Waddell researchers.  Each raceway will be 127 feet long, 24 feet wide and hold 74,500 gallons of water.  Waddell has conducted research on five stocking-to-harvest cycles in similar raceways.  In those studies, stocking densities ranged from 300 to 581 postlarvae per square meter.  Survival rates ranged from 54% to 91%.  Production ranged from 4.68 to 7.08 kilograms per square meter.  The Waddell research showed that the higher the stocking rate, the higher the production.


Wert-Berater used a selling price of $4.50 per pound and a survival rate of 75% to analyze the financial feasibility of the project.  Their analysis indicated that the project is financially feasible given current market conditions.


Information: Donald Safranek, President Wert-Berater, Inc. (phone 1-888-661-4449, email, webpage


Source: Email from Donald Safranek at Wert-Berater, Inc., to Shrimp News International.  Attachment: Feasibility Study of a Planned Super-Intensive Shrimp Farm in South Carolina.  Received October 7, 2010.


Shrimp Farming, Status and Statistics


Vietnam farms tropical lobsters, freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and western white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei)—but the bulk of its crustacean production comes from the giant tiger shrimp (P. monodon):


Hectares devoted to tiger shrimp farming = 600,000.

Hectares devoted to white shrimp farming = 20,800.

Number of lobster cages = 55,000.


In 2009, tiger shrimp farms produced 300,000 tons of whole animals; white shrimp farms, 92,000 tons; lobster farms, 2,500 tons; and freshwater prawn farms, 25,000 tons.


Ca Mau Province has the largest brackish water farming area, more than 280,000 hectares, followed by Bac Lieu Province with 123,197 hectares and Kien Giang, Soc Trang, Ben Tre and Tra Vinh provinces with between 23,000 and 81,200 hectares.


Most white shrimp (P. vannamei) farming occurs in the central provinces and in the northeast province of Quang Ninh.  Those two areas have 15,237 hectares of shrimp ponds, representing 73% of the national white shrimp farming area.  Quang Ninh has the largest white shrimp farming area nationwide with more than 4,000 hectares of ponds.  White shrimp farming is being promoted and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development has requested the Directorate of Fisheries to quickly supplement the development of white shrimp broodstock.


Source:  Current Situation and Development Direction of Shrimp Production.  October 11, 2010.


Penaeus vannamei Die en Masse


Beginning in late September 2010, white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) began dying en masse in the central province of Thua Thien-Hue.  Chairman of the District People’s Committee, Nguyen Dai Vui, said the losses hit 100 hectares, costing farmers nearly $1 million.  “This is the first such incident since local farmers set up their shrimp businesses here in 2001.”  Polluted water could be the cause of the shrimp deaths.  He said, “Shrimp...farms often discharge wastewater into the sea, and later on use that sea water again to fill their shrimp farms.”


Farmer Vo Van Khanh from the Phong Hai Commune, whose losses were estimated at $15,800, said his shrimp died the day after he topped-off his ponds with new seawater.  In early September, Vui said district inspectors temporarily suspended 19 shrimp farms for violations of wastewater treatment regulations.


New regulations require that shrimp farmers have detailed plans for wastewater treatment when they apply for a farming permit.  Vui said farmers in one commune were investing in a 6,000-square-meter reservoir to hold wastewater.  “We encourage farmers to build more reservoirs to avoid discharging waste water into the sea,” Vui said.


Source: Vietnam News.  White-Leg Shrimp Die en Masse.  October 6, 2010.


Price Increase in Ca Mau Province


Since early October 2010, shrimp prices have increased sharply in Ca Mau Province, located at the southern tip of the country.  The price jump was caused by rising demand for Vietnamese shrimp in the USA and Europe.  The price rose from $4.87 to $5.64 (even to $6.41 in some cases) per kilo for 30-count whole animals, and from $4.10 to $5.13 per kilo for 40-count whole animals.


Source: Vietnam News.  Price of Shrimp Rises in Southern Ca Mau.  October 8, 2010.


Vietnam’s Biggest Exporter Sees 44% Increase In Shrimp Exports


On October 11, 2010, Minh Phu Seafood Group Corp., Vietnam’s biggest exporter of shrimp products, reported that its exports rose an estimated 44% to $157.57 million during the first nine months of 2010.


Minh Phu exported a total of 14,992 tons of shrimp products during the nine-month period, 36.5% more than during the same period in 2009.


The USA market accounted for 46.3% of the company’s total exports in terms of value, followed by Japan with 14% and Canada with 9%.


Source: (an online, subscription-based, fisheries news service).  Editor and Publisher, John Sackton (phone 1-781-861-1441, email  Minh Phu Seafood, Vietnam’s Biggest Exporter, Sees 44% Increase In Shrimp Exports So Far This Year.  October 11, 2010.


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