Dr. Tzachi Samocha Talks about His
Record Breaking Production System
Dr. Tzachi Samocha, a Regents Fellow and professor at the AgriLife Research Mariculture Laboratory in Corpus Christi, Texas, USA, said yields from his growout system are about ten times greater than those from a typical outdoor pond in the USA. He said the biosecure, sustainable system could be used by farmers in the USA to supply high-quality, fresh shrimp to local restaurants on a year-round basis. For a detailed background report on the system, click here.
“This growout system could be built near large cities to cater to a niche market of consumers willing to pay premium prices for tasty, fresh, never-frozen shrimp. Diners could actually pick the shrimp they’d like to eat out of a restaurant tank, much like they do with lobsters.”
“We found just the right formula for mixing and oxygenating the culture medium using a commercially available feed, careful feed management and biofloc control, which means you don’t let the nutrients and particulate matter in the water get out of control.”
“For the first time ever, we were able to produce 9.75 kilograms of shrimp per cubic meter of water using very little pure oxygen that resulted in very low levels of ammonia and nitrite in the water.”
“These are good-size Pacific White Shrimp. They are of marketable size—about 23 grams each—meaning about 30 tails per pound.” That translates into 21.5 pounds of shrimp in 264 gallons of water, a production level that is unheard of in the industry—and likely a world record.
“When considering fixed and variable costs, our total cost to produce shrimp was about $5.52 per kilo, about $2.50 per pound. That’s relatively low considering the quality of the shrimp being produced.”
“We’ve crunched the numbers every which way possible and our studies show that with an initial investment of $992,000, a successful commercial operation could show returns of about 38 percent annually, with a payback period of about 2.8 years.”
“After 108 days, the system did not reach its maximum carrying capacity. Nevertheless, we had to terminate the production trial as we had no way to heat the water. As the ambient temperature here in Corpus Christi began to drop, so did the water temperature.”
“Also of great significance is that the shrimp raised in this system are never treated with antibiotics.”
“The quality of the shrimp we produce is so high that they can easily qualify for sashimi lovers. They are that tasty and safe.”
Due to lack of funding, Samocha had to release what he calls the “golden water” from his experimental shrimp production tanks, but he is confident he could have continued growing shrimp if he had the proper heating equipment.
Information: Tzachi Samocha, PhD, Regents Fellow and Professor, AgriLife Research Mariculture Laboratory, 4301 Waldron Road, Corpus Christi, Texas 78418, USA (phone 1-361-937-2268, fax 1-253-390-6081, email email@example.com, webpage http://ccag.tamu.edu/mariculture/flour_bluff_mariculture/index.php).
Source: Restaurants and Institutions Website. Targeted News Services (TNS MkTanz-JF78-100105-2553591/StaffFurigay). New Shrimp-Farming Method Could Revitalize the U.S. Industry. January 5, 2010.
Shrimp and Lobster Farming on the Same Site
Everything about the spiny lobster conspires to make it a seafood status symbol. Its porcelain-perfect exoskeleton is overlaid with blue and orange decorations so striking that the word “ornament” appears in its scientific name, Panulirus ornatus. It shuns the cooking pot altogether and is served raw, sashimi style, typically at Chinese weddings. P. ornatus is expensive to produce, but the end product is so valuable, fetching up to $100 a kilogram wholesale, that hatchery-based ornatus farms offer an attractive commercial opportunity.
Australian scientists and Lobster Harvest, Pty. Ltd., funded by Australia’s MG Kailis Group, have figured out how to breed this Rolls Royce of lobsters. In December 2009, Lobster Harvest, which has exclusive rights to the technology being developed by the collaboration, said it expects to be in a position to commercialize its hatchery technology in three or four years.
Could ornatus be raised on shrimp farms? That possibility is already being investigated!
Information: Duncan Ferguson, QPI&F Business Manager (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Information: Terry Burnage, Lobster Harvest Executive Business Manager (email@example.com).
Source: FISH (Fisheries Research and Development Corporation News, . Aquaculture/Seafoods’ ‘Rolls Royce’ Drives Aquaculture Research. Gio Braidotti. Page 26, December 2009.
New Laws on Feeds and Antibiotics
The government is set to pass a tough new law that will regulate shrimp feed manufacturers and ban the use of antibiotics in prawn and shrimp feeds.
Rafiqul Islam, director general of the Department of Fisheries, said, “Presently, local feed manufacturers and suppliers are not registered and they require no licenses. Due to lack of law, some of them get away with selling poor quality feed, chemicals and antibiotics in the market.”
What was the source of the antibiotic residues found in Bangladeshi shrimp and prawns that were shipped to the European Union? Some unscrupulous feed producers were using feed ingredients, like protein concentrate and oil cake, that contained nitrofurans and chloramphenicol. Poultry litter was another source. Used as a feed ingredient and to fertilize ponds, it has been found to be a major source of antibiotics in exported shrimp.
Maksudur Rahman, vice president of Bangladesh Frozen Foods Exporters Association (BFFEA) and a leading shrimp exporter, said imported feed ingredients such as protein concentrates, meat and bone meal, dried shrimp and oil cake will be free from banned antibiotics when the new law is passed. “Our farmers use 22-25 percent locally produced feeds and 70-75 percent imported feeds. Both have been found to be sources of metabolites of banned nitrofurans and other hazardous chemicals,” he said.
A Bangladesh Quality Support Programme (BQST) study has recently revealed that five feed supplements and 28 chemicals are on sale in the country. The study also found that 11 out of 36 shrimp feeds and nine out of 72 feed ingredients were contaminated with nitrofuran metabolites or chloramphenicol.
Source: Financial Express. . Monira Munni. December 19, 2009.
The ECMT Group has a position open for a shrimp hatchery technician. Candidates with degrees in the Life Sciences, Biology or Aquaculture will be given preference. The position will require the management of larval and nurseries capable of producing 350 million postlarvae (Penaeus monodon) annually.
Closing Date: January 15, 2010.
Information: Dr. Shariff (phone +919937604151, email firstname.lastname@example.org).
Source: AquaNic (The Aquaculture Network Information Center, a gateway to the world’s electronic aquaculture resources). Jobs Directory in cooperation with the WAS Employment Service. Search jobs. Shrimp Hatchery Technician. January 4, 2010.
The Best Freshwater Prawn Broodstock
From abstract: In this experiment, the researchers measured the reproductive performance and offspring quality of Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstock from four sources:
Females were fed a commercial diet and observed for 180 days in three 1,200-liter freshwater recirculating systems. Ovarian development, molting and spawning events were checked daily. A number of egg and larval quality parameters were also checked.
Breeding frequency, fecundity, egg laying success rate, egg dimension and egg hatchability were not significantly different among the four sources of broodstock.
There were significant differences, however, in terms of offspring quality. Individual dry weight, larval development rate, time to reach the postlarval stage, postlarval survival and tolerance to ammonia toxicity were all better in the offspring from the China and Vietnam farmed broodstock, compared to those from Vietnam/wild and Hawaii/farmed sources. Moreover, offspring quality from Chinese and Vietnamese farmed broodstock proved more stable in terms of ammonia tolerance over three consecutive reproduction cycles.
Source: Aquaculture. . Dinh The Nhan, Mathieu Wille, Le Thanh Hung and Patrick Sorgeloos ( , Laboratory of Aquaculture and Artemia Reference Center, Gent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Gent, Belgium). Volume 298, Issues 1-2, Pages 36-42, December 16, 2009.
INVE—New Product, Separates Artemia Naups from Their Shells
On December 17, 2009, INVE Aquaculture launched “SEPArt”, a new technology for separating Artemia nauplii from their shells. The process yields pure Artemia nauplii without the use of chemicals or complex manipulations.
SEPArt does not require any structural modifications or changes in incubation or harvest protocols. Using the INVE SEPArt cysts and the dedicated equipment (SEPArt Tube separator or the high throughput CysTM unit) simplifies the process and eliminates the need for any additional energy.
Information: INVE Aquaculture, Hoogveld 93, 9200 Dendermonde, Belgium (email , webpage ).
Source: INVE Technologies NV. Press Release/INVE Aquaculture Sets New Standards for Responsible Aquaculture. December 17, 2009.
Digestibility of Shrimp Feeds
From abstract: In this study, the apparent digestibility coefficients of the following dry ingredients were determined for Penaeus vannamei:
• Peruvian fish meal
• Fermented soybean meal
• Extruded soybean meal
• Soybean meal
• Peanut meal
• Wheat gluten meal
• Corn gluten meal
• Shrimp byproduct meal
• Meat and bone meal
• Poultry meat meal
• Plasma protein meal
The researchers compared a reference diet to several test diets (consisting of 70% of the reference diet and 30% of one of the above ingredients). A total of 1,440 shrimp (initial mean body weight one gram) were randomly stocked into thirty-six 500-liter fiberglass tanks with 40 shrimp per tank and three tanks per diet. The shrimp were fed to apparent satiation four times a day and the feeding experiment lasted six weeks.
Feces analysis indicated that apparent dry matter digestibilities were the highest for the Peruvian fish meal. Apparent protein and lipid digestibility were in the range 87.89–93.18% and 91.57–95.28%, respectively, in plant products; and 75.00–92.34% and 83.72–92.79%, respectively, for animal products.
The shrimp demonstrated a high capacity to utilize phosphorus. The apparent phosphorus digestibility ranges of animal feedstuffs and plant feedstuffs were 58.90–71.61% and 75.77–82.30%, respectively. Amino acid availability correlated with protein digestibility, except in meat and bone meal, where the availability of some amino acid was lower, possibly due to protein damage during processing.
Source: Aquaculture Research. Apparent Digestibility of Selected Feed Ingredients for White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, Boone. Qihui Yang, Xiaoqiu Zhou (Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agriculture University, Ya’an, Sichuan, China), Qicun Zhou, Beiping Tan, Shuyan Chi and Xiaohui Dong. Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 78-86. Published online on July 21, 2009.
A recent audit by the European Union’s Food and Veterinary Office expressed dissatisfaction with India’s antibiotic residue monitoring system, and, once again, the EU is talking about banning shrimp from India.
More than 50% of India’s farmed shrimp exports go to EU countries and a ban would seriously disrupt shrimp farms across the nation, said Anwar Hashim, national president of the Seafood Exporters Association of India (SEAI).
“This will have a cascading effect on pricing and viability of shrimp culture, affecting the livelihood of lakhs [hundreds of thousands] of aqua farmers all over coastal India,” he added.
The Food and Veterinary Office (FVO), based in Brussels, is responsible for ensuring the safety of food imported into the EU and has the mandate to ban imports which do not meet its standards.
After its biennial audit of Indian seafood testing laboratories, in a strongly worded letter to the Indian Government, FVO said that the Indian system of residue monitoring was structurally flawed and ineffective. FVO was also disturbed because the concerns raised by previous audit teams (2003 and 2006) were not addressed by the Indian authorities.
Most countries are now insisting that the Export Inspection Council of India (EIC) provide antibiotic-free and health certificates with every shrimp shipment.
In the past, traces of antibiotic residues in Indian farmed shrimp have prompted some European countries to reject it.
Source: Seafood.com (an online, subscription-based, fisheries news service). EU threatens to ban farmed Indian shrimp for inadequate monitoring of antibiotic residue. Ken Coons (phone 1-781-861-1441, email ). Editor and Publisher, John Sackton (phone 1-781-861-1441, email ). December 17, 2009.
Shrimp Farming Conference
Hosted by the Indonesian Aquaculture Society, an affiliate of the World Aquaculture Society, the International Conference and Exhibition on Shrimp Aquaculture (ICE-SA 2010) will be held at the Jakarta Convention Center from May 5 to 7, 2010. The theme? Sustainability and the Global Market Share of the Shrimp Aquaculture Industry.
It will feature three concurrent sessions:
• Production Systems and Management Technology
• Breeding and Genetics
• Nutrition and Health
Species covered: crabs, spiny lobsters, freshwater prawns and marine shrimp.
Conference organizers expect more than 1,000 participants from around the world. They are offering 200 trade show booths.
Information: H. Agung Sundaryono, PhD, Secretary General, International Marketing Office, Suite 409, 2nd Floor, Block A Glomac Business Center, Jalan SS 6/1, Kelana Jaya 47301, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia (phone +603-7804-3423, fax +603-7880-2817, email http://www.aquacultureindonesia.com)., webpage
Sources: 1. International Conference and Exhibition on Shrimp Aquaculture Website. Website visit on December 22, 2009. 2. AQUA Culture AsiaPacific (Editor/Publisher, Zuridah Merican, email email@example.com). Advertisement/International Conference and Exhibition on Shrimp Aquaculture. Volume 5, Number 6, Page 44, November/December 2009.
The world’s largest shrimp farm, PT Central Proteinaprima (CP Prima), is working to overhaul its production processes after a year in which output was reduced by the spread of a highly infectious virus and sales were hit by a trade spat with the United States.
On December 17, 2009, Erwin Sutanto, CP Prima’s president/director, said the company was focused on limiting the spread of the infectious myonecrosis (IMN) virus, which has devastated the company’s shrimp production. Production at the company’s main Central Pertiwibahari farm dried up almost completely—from 5,728 metric tons in January 2009 to below 433 tons in September 2009. “We have successfully stabilized and improved the shrimp production at Central Pertiwibahari and continue to improve the methodology for preventing the IMN virus from spreading,” Erwin said.
Profits plummeted on lower sales volumes, especially after sales to the key market in the United States were halted in January because of allegations that the company had illegally transshipped shrimp from China.
Export volumes of the company’s mainstay, frozen shrimp products, dropped from 12,800 tons in the first quarter to only 7,300 tons in the second quarter before increasing slightly to 7,565 tons in the third quarter. The USA began admitting CP Prima shrimp in mid-year after government representatives intervened on behalf of the company in April 2009.
CP Prima’s profit margins were also affected by the weakening of the USA dollar.
Erwin said CP Prima continued to suffer from net cash outflows in the third quarter, primarily because of lower production and farmers’ impaired ability to pay for feed and fry because of the reduced pond yields.
Source: Jakarta Globe. Shrimp Farmer CP Prima Works to Restore Output. Yohanes Obor. December 18, 2009.
Government Starts Construction of Eleven Demonstration Farms
On December 14, 2009, the government starting work on its first demonstration shrimp farm in Balochistan Province. Eventually, the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock plans to establish eleven, ten-hectare demonstration shrimp farms, three in Sindh Province and eight in Balochistan Province.
Mohammad Moazzam Khan, Chief Executive of the Fisheries Development Board and Managing Director of the Marine Fisheries Department, said land has been already been identified for two more farms in Balochistan and for three farms in Sindh. He hopes to have all eleven farms functioning by 2013. The provincial governments will provide the land for the demonstration farms. After completion, the farms will be handed over to the provinces, progressive farmers, partners and potential stakeholders.
Source: TheNews.com. Government Plans 11 Shrimp Farms. Shahid Shah. December 20, 2009.
OKs Import of Penaeus monodon Broodstock and Postlarvae
In 2001, to prevent the entry of whitespot, yellowhead and other shrimp viruses, the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources banned the importation of giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Recently, however, so that shrimp breeders can enhance the genetic reserves of the local P. monodon broodstock, the Bureau rescinded the ban.
Source: Business World. . Neil Jerome C. Morales. December 17, 2009.
Taiwan’s Sea Party Technology, Co., Ltd., in Kuching, the first major investor to operate in the Tanjung Manis Halal Hub in central Sarawak, will undertake the farming of shrimp, fish and chickens. The company has committed some $583 million to the project.
Revises Standards for Good Agriculture Practices
Shrimp welfare and social responsibility are among the important criteria in Thailand’s revised Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) code.
The new GAP, revised from the 2003 version, aims to raise export standards and ensure that shrimp meet requirements demanded by foreign buyers, said Pradit Chonchuenchob, director of the Fisheries Department. Pradit said that currently more than 17,000 Thai shrimp farms have complied with international standards (basically the Code of Conduct of the Food and Agriculture) and the existing GAP. Appropriate waste water treatment, no farming in mangrove areas and well-irrigated sites are among the 56 additional rules in the revised GAP, which took effect in 2009. The department will allow shrimp farms three years to adjust their operations to comply with the new GAP. “Big farms would have no problem but smaller ones may need time to change,” Pradit said.
“The new GAP would be a way to upgrade the Thai shrimp export industry to keep it ahead of rivals, notably Vietnam and Indonesia,” said Varin Tanasomwang, director of the Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Bureau.
The plan also recommends that Thai exporters balance markets and reduce dependence on any one country by capping export volume to a single market at 45% of total exports. At present, the United States is the major importer of Thai shrimp, consuming 49 to 50 percent of the country’s exports.
Source: Bangkok Post. Walailak Keeratipipatpong. December 19, 2009..
CP Foods Predicting Record Profits for 2009
On December 16, 2009, Adirek Sriprathak, managing director of Charoen Pokphand Foods, said CPF expects a record profit in 2009 and aims for a 5-7 percent revenue growth in 2010 to $5.13 billion. “Our strategy for next year is to push on production of ready-to-eat food both for domestic and overseas markets.” With strong demand from overseas markets, shrimp products are expected to play a part in pushing up earnings in 2010, he said.
Source: Reuters India. . Reported by Viparat Jantraprap, edited by Alan Raybould. December 16, 2009.
California—Monterey Bay Aquarium
Peter Bridson, aquaculture research manager at the Monterey Bay Aquarium, said MBA will release a series of reports on international shrimp farming in 2010. Currently, imported farmed shrimp is ranked red, or “avoid”, in the MBA’s Seafood Watch seafood-buying guide. While it is too early in the process for Bridson to announce a rating change for imported farmed shrimp, he acknowledged that the industry, especially in Southeast Asia, has improved dramatically.
Reports on Thailand and Mexico will be available in early 2010, followed by reports on shrimp farming in Ecuador, Indonesia and Vietnam.
New York—The Huffington Press on the Nutritional Qualities of Shrimp
Shrimp is the single most popular seafood in the United States. The average American consumes over 4½ pounds a year. And yes, the cholesterol count is high (about 200 milligrams in 3½ ounces), but that is a deceptive figure. Since the fat content of shrimp is so low (barely 1 gram per serving, as opposed to around 20 grams for an equal amount of beef) and saturated fat increases the absorption of cholesterol in the body, the cholesterol in shrimp is not fully absorbed. Studies have shown that shrimp actually improves the ratio of “good” cholesterol to “bad” cholesterol, and its high levels of unsaturated fatty acids may even contribute to lowered cholesterol levels.
Shrimp has many other nutritional benefits. It’s an excellent source of low-fat and low calorie protein. It provides a whopping dose of vitamins B-12 and D, a generous amount of omega-3 fatty acids and a serious helping of the trace mineral selenium. Both the B-12 and omega-3s contribute to cardio-health on several levels, and the omega-3s are known to combat depression and provide protection against age-related cognitive decline. The selenium, on its own and in combination with the omega-3s, has been shown to inhibit the formation of cancer cells.
Source: The Huffington Post. . Neil Zevnik. December 8, 2009.
Asia Hawaii Ventures
Asia Hawaii Ventures, a wholly owned, foreign-invested enterprise based in Phu Yen Province, will spend $4.3 million to develop a shrimp hatchery and 50-hectare farm in Quang Binh Province. It will build a hatchery capable of stocking the farm’s ponds and an additional 1,200 to 1,500 hectares of ponds. The farm hopes to produce 500 to 600 tons of shrimp a year. The project will create over 300 jobs and produce revenues of about $650,000 a year.
Source: NhanDan.com. VND 80 Billion to Raise Shrimp on Sand. December 22, 2009.