Pescanova’s Huge Shrimp Hatchery in
Leland Lai and Bud Insalata, co-directors of Aquafauna Bio-Marine, have been marketing specialized diets to shrimp hatcheries around the world for the past 33 years. Based in Southern California (USA), Aquafauna also designs and equips hatcheries with everything they need from water intakes and well screens to heating, filtration, pumping and aeration systems. In 2009, Aquafauna designed and installed a “green” solar heating system for Pescanova/Camanica’s huge shrimp hatchery in Nicaragua.
Leland Lai says: “Shrimp hatchery operations generally require heating of some sort, and for the past 30 years that has meant a diesel boiler—or several diesel boilers—depending on the size of the hatchery. Thinking green takes some insight, up front investment, and in these tough times, some guts and long-term planning.”
“Two years ago, while working on the Pescanova project, the largest shrimp farming venture in the Western Hemisphere, we discovered that each of the four 1,000-metric-ton reservoirs for the larval rearing greenhouses would require a three-million-BTU-per-hour boiler, consuming 300 gallons of diesel a day, during the January-March winter season. Larry Drazba, who manages Pescanova in Central America, was open to alternative heating, but purchased the boilers anyway, as back-ups.”
“We designed a solar system that utilizes 500 high-flow solar panels, made in Israel by Heliocol, to heat the water in the larvae culture greenhouses. They have a life span of 12-14 years. I use them on my swimming pool, and I’m now 18 years into my second system.”
Larry Drazba, manager of Pescanova in Central America, said: “Our solar pre-heater picks up 1 degree C per hour on 1,000 tons. It works great and saves a lot of money. Between greenhouses and the solar pre-heater, we use no other heating methods to maintain 31°C.”
Information: Leland Lai, Director, Aquafauna Bio-Marine, Inc., P.O. Box 5, Hawthorne, California 90250, USA (phone 1-310-973-5275, fax 1-310-676-9387, email firstname.lastname@example.org, webpage http://www.aquafauna.com).
Source: Emails and pictures from Leland Lai. Subject: Who Is Thinking Green? February 1, 2010.
On-Farm Selective Breeding Programs
From Abstract: Over the past three years, an Australian company has demonstrated the benefits of on-farm selective breeding of giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) through continued improvements in pond yields. Other Australian companies are now following this lead and are developing their own P. monodon selective breeding programs (SBPs). A collaborative project to develop on-farm SBPs among three Australian companies, CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) and the Queensland Government is currently underway. This project is focused on developing practical approaches to on-farm selective breeding using advanced molecular and quantitative genetic techniques and viral diagnostics. By applying these genetic techniques, on-farm SBPs can overcome many of the challenges associated with traditional shrimp breeding programs, which have typically relied on a combination of separate family rearing and physical tagging to trace pedigree.
Genetic tools, like high throughput microsatellite markers, enable SBPs to determine the genetic diversity and molecular pedigree of their breeding stocks. The molecular pedigree established by the markers is used within pooled‑mating allocation algorithms to identify optimal broodstock mating designs that minimize inbreeding and maximize genetic gain. Importantly, by using the genetic markers, broodstock can be mated naturally, removing the reliance on artificial insemination for propagation of the SBP families without compromising effective genetic management of the programs.
Viral diagnostic tools are also being incorporated into high throughput systems to facilitate regular monitoring of the loading of viruses within the SBP populations. As the most pathogenic viruses of P. monodon are not present in Australia stocks, emphasis is placed on managing the health of the stocks rather than developing specific pathogen free stocks.
The intent of the project is to develop SBPs that can be largely self‑managed at the farm level, without need for continued high levels of quantitative genetic and database management expertise.
With these continued advances in selective breeding of P. monodon in Australia, there has been renewed interest in techniques to protect against unwanted or unlicensed breeding of the elite SBP stocks. CSIRO, in collaboration with the Australian Prawn Farmers Association and the Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Centre, is currently undertaking trials to assess the performance of triploid P. monodon on a commercial farm. If P. monodon triploids perform well under commercial conditions, SBPs choosing to sell their elite SBP stocks could benefit through development of cost‑effective technologies for commercial-scale triploidy induction. CSIRO is also investigating approaches for controlling sex determination and sterility using gene regulation. If successful, these approaches could potentially provide a simpler and more reliable means of providing genetic protection in the future.
Information: John Cooksey, World Aquaculture Conference Management, P.O. Box 2302, Valley Center, California 92082, USA (phone 1-760-751-5005, fax 1-760-751-5003, email email@example.com, webpage https://www.was.org/Main/Default.asp).
Source: The Abstracts of Asia Pacific Aquaculture 2009 (on CD). Practical Applications of Genetic Technologies to Selective Breeding of Penaeus monodon in Australia. Greg Coman (firstname.lastname@example.org), John Henshall, Melony Sellars, Jeff Cowley, Yutao Li and Nigel Preston (CSIRO Food Futures National Research Flagship, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, 233 Middle Street Cleveland, Queensland, Australia 4163). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 2009.
Making Car Seat Covers from Shrimp Shells
Enterprising Australian researchers have discovered that a material made from the exoskeletons of shrimp and crabs can produce automotive fabrics that are resistant to odors, stains and even microbes.
Experiments at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology show that chitosan, a biopolymer in crustacean shells, can be blended with fragrant oils to create a durable, sweet-smelling antimicrobial surface for polyester fabric.
Source: Freep.com. Australian Researchers Discover Material Made from Shrimp. January 28, 2010.
Antibiotics Found in Shrimp Shipments, Again
On January 27, 2010, the Bangladesh embassy in Washington DC, USA, sent a letter to several governmental ministries in Bangladesh saying that nitrofurans had again been found in shipments of shrimp from Bangladesh. The letter, signed by Kazi Shamsul Alam, said: “I have received information from a confidential source that nitrofuran was detected recently in two shipments of shrimp from Bangladesh to the US. ...If nitrofuran is continuously found in frozen shrimps, then our exports to the US market will be seriously affected.”
Source: The Financial Express. Spectre of New Setback Looms over Shrimp Export to US. Humayan Kabir. January 29, 2010.
Exports of Freshwater Prawns Soar When Ban Lifted
In the 11 days after its self-imposed export ban on freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) to the European Union was lifted, Bangladesh exported $8.6 million worth of prawns (galda, also known as green tiger prawns), mostly to the European Union.
Source: The New Nation. Shrimps Worth Tk 60cr Exported in 11 Days. January 24, 2010.
Sea Prawn Farm
On February 1, 2010, Datuk Yahya Hussin, Minister of Agriculture and Food, during a visit to Sea Prawn Farm, a shrimp farm in Kota Belud, said the farm was the only aquaculture venture in Sabah that had earned European Union certification for its white and tiger shrimp. Wah Keng Jieng, director of Sea Prawn Farm, said in 2009 he exported 1,500 metric tons of shrimp to the EU at an average price of $3,200 a ton.
Source: DailyExpress.com. Yahya: Sabah Seafood Must Meet EU Terms. February 2, 2010.
Germany’s Ristic Owns Organic Shrimp Farm
Over the last few years, Ristic, one of Germany’s biggest importers of farmed shrimp, has built up its investment in organic shrimp farming in Costa Rica. The company imports around 1,000 metric tons of organic shrimp a year—certified to European Union organic standards—from its own farm and other organic farms in Costa Rica.
Change in Testing Protocol Results in Fewer Rejections
There has been a sharp fall in EU rejections of Indian shrimp—fifty in January 2009 and only one in January 2010—after changes were made in the testing protocol. Previously, the tests were done on the shell; now they are done on the tail meat.
CP Prima in Talks on Bond Payments
While negotiating with some of its bondholders over a missed bond payment, troubled shrimp producer PT Central Proteinaprima (CP Prima) wants to suspend interest payments on those bonds for six months. Gunawan Taslim, CP Prima’s finance director, said in a statement on January 28, 2010, that the company is preparing a proposal for restructuring the notes and expects to have an agreement signed soon. Under the deal, bondholders would not demand that their principal be repaid, execute the notes’ guarantee or seek bankruptcy measures against the company, Gunawan said.
Source: Jakarta Globe. Shrimp Company CP Prima in Talks on Bond Payments. Yohanes Obor. January 28, 2010.
Fish Meal and Fish Oil Prices
International fish meal prices keep rising to new highs on rumors that El Niño’s warm waters will reduce the anchovy catch in northern Peru.
In late January 2010, the price of prime-grade fish meal for aquaculture from northern Peru soared to $1,800 a metric ton (FOB–Peru), which was an increase of around $100 from the previous month.
Compared to the same period in 2009, meal prices are up 80%.
The anchovy catch quota could be reduced to two million tons, down 33% from the initial forecast of three million tons.
According to a Japanese trading source: “The prices will most probably stay at high levels even if the quota is kept unchanged from the previous year. ...The bulk of fish meal has already been contracted, and there is anticipation of higher prices in the days ahead. It is very unlikely that ample supply of fish meal will flow into the international market for some time to come.”
The yields of fish oil from the catch were normal in 2009, at around 4%, but a little lower than in 2008. Prices in late January 2010 were firm at $975 per ton (FOB–Peru), up about $100 from a month ago. Fish oil prices have been on a gradual upturn since the spring of 2009 and have gone as high as $1,000 a ton.
Source: Seafood.com (an online, subscription-based, fisheries news service). International Price of Fish Meal and Oil Rising to New Highs. Ken Coons (phone 1-781-861-1441, email email@example.com). Editor and Publisher, John Sackton (phone 1-781-861-1441, email firstname.lastname@example.org). February 2, 2010.
Video of the Construction of Seacages at Pesquera Delly
For a three-minute video/slide show of the construction and installation of some of the seacages at Pesquera Delly, an offshore shrimp farm, click on the link below. Steve Page, founder of Ocean Farm Technologies, the company that supplied the seacages, narrates it. Page says, “The potential to grow shrimp in pristine open ocean condition is just huge.” Page is scheduled to give a presentation on the system at the World Aquaculture Society Meeting in San Diego, California, USA (March 2 to 5, 2010).
Regulations on the Import of Penaeus monodon
The government now allows the import of tiger shrimp broodstock and postlarvae. The Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) and the Department of Agriculture (DA) have established an administrative order to regulate the import and farming of Penaeus monodon.
Fisheries Administrative Order 230 says, “Only shrimp hatcheries accredited by the BFAR shall be allowed to import SPF or SPR P. monodon broodstock and postlarvae.”
Order 230 also says that BFAR-accredited Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) hatcheries can import and breed giant tiger shrimp if they do so in separate hatchery facilities and allow BFAR inspections.
Companies exporting broodstock and postlarvae to the Philippines: “Must have a minimum two years disease-free status as certified by a competent authority from the country of origin. In addition, the facility must submit its disease history for the period covering its commercial establishment to the present,” says Order 230. “Upon arrival at the facility, the broodstock and/or postlarvae shall be confined in designated holding tanks for quarantine and subsequent maturation and breeding purposes.”
Broodstock and postlarvae will be purchased exclusively from facilities in the USA and other countries that produce certified Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) and Specific Pathogen Resistant (SPR) shrimp. Those facilities must have a well documented breeding program with Penaeus monodon.
“All samples shall be subjected for analysis for Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV), Whitespot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), Infectious Hypodermal and Haematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV), Hepatopancreatic Parvo-like Virus (HPV), Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV) and Yellowhead Virus (YHV) at their respective BFAR Regional Fish Health Laboratories or any BFAR-recognized laboratory,” says Order 230.
Violators will be sent to jail for eight years, be fined $1,737 and be banned from becoming a member or stockholder in companies engaged in existing or future fisheries.
How Widespread Is the Taura Virus in Thailand
Using PCR and immunological analyses, Barnette et al. (2008) examined the occurrence of TS, WSS and YH viruses in populations of Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei adults in the Gulf of Thailand. The data suggested that TSV has already spread into the Bangpakong River and the Gulf of Thailand. The authors detected the presence of TSV in P. monodon adults, local shrimp species of the Bangpakong River (ten species, namely Penaeus monodon, P. semisulcatus, P. merguiensis, Metapenaeus brevicornis, M. affinis, M. tenuipes, Parapenopsis hungerfordi, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, two other species belonging to the family Caridae and wild-caught P. vannamei). The authors also detected TSV in green mussels (Perna viridis), blue swimming crabs (Portunus pelagicus) and Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). TSV appeared to be more widespread in the dry season than the wet season. In addition, Barnette et al. (2008) showed that all three viruses—TSV, WSSV and YHV—can be horizontally transmitted among P. vannamei, P. monodon and Macrobrachium rosenbergii.
Source: Aquaculture Asia Magazine. Editor, Simon Wilkinson. Genetics and Biodiversity/Preliminary Risk Assessment of Pacific Whiteleg Shrimp (P. vannamei) Introduced to Thailand for Aquaculture. W. Senanan (Department of Aquatic Science, Faculty of Science, Burapha University, Chon Buri 20131, Thailand), S. Panutrakul, P. Barnette, S. Chavanich, V. Mantachitr, N. Tangkrock-OIan and V. Viyakarn. Volume-14, Number-4, Page-30. October-December 2009.
California—WAS Business Meeting in San Diego
Attention World Aquaculture Society Members:
“Please join us at the annual WAS Business Meeting to be held in conjunction with Aquaculture-2010 in San Diego, California, USA. The meeting will be held Monday, March 1, 2010, from 4:00 to 5:00 p.m. at the Royal Palm 2 in the Town and Country Hotel and Conference Center.”
Information: Judy Andrasko, World Aquaculture Society (email@example.com).
Source: Email to Shrimp News International from Judy Andrasko at the World Aquaculture Society. Subject: WAS 2010 Annual Business Meeting in San Diego, California, USA. January 29, 2010.
Texas—The New Biggest Shrimp Ever Caught
In a recent issue of Free News, Dr. Gopakumar, manager of Al Jaraf Fisheries in the United Arab Emirates, said the biggest shrimp ever caught was a 435-gram tiger shrimp netted off the coast of Mumbai in western India. He said it is being kept as a specimen at the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute in Kochi, India.
On January 25 and 26, 2010, Granvil Treece, Aquaculture Specialist, Texas A&M University, reported:
“I still have a female monodon in a one-gallon jar from Jepara, Java, from 1986 that was 454 grams (one pound) and 35 centimeters long. After ablation, she (‘Big Mamoo’) spawned 1.4 million eggs on the first spawn and 1.2 million eggs on the second spawn. Unfortunately, shortly after that, an air blower sucked carbon monoxide into the hatchery and killed all the broodstock and larvae. At the time, I was on a hatchery training mission for Central Java Enterprise Development Project and USAID, and worked there the summer of 1986 and 1987.”
Information: Granvil Treece, Aquaculture Specialist, Texas A&M University, Sea Grant College Program, 2700 Earl Rudder Freeway South, Suite 1800, College Station, Texas 77845, USA (phone 1-979-845-7527, fax 1-979-845-7525, email firstname.lastname@example.org, website http://texas-sea-grant.tamu.edu).
Source: Emails to Shrimp News International from Granvil Treece. Subject: Biggest Shrimp. January 25 and 26, 2010.
Exports $1.5 Billion of Worth of Shrimp
In the first 11 months of 2009, according to the preliminary statistics from its Customs Office, Viet Nam exported 190,490 metric tons of shrimp, valued at more than $1.518 billion, including more than 50,000 tons of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei), worth more than $300 million.
Eighteen percent of Vietnam’s total shrimp exports are white shrimp, and twenty-eight percent of its exports to the USA are white shrimp. In 2010, according to Mr. Truong Dinh Hoe, VASEP General Secretary, white shrimp exports could increase significantly because of their low price. Hoe predicted the export volume of white shrimp in 2010 will almost quadruple to 190,000 metric tons, accounting for one third of the country’s shrimp exports.
Ho Chi Minh City’s Shrimp Production
According to Ho Chi Minh City’s Sub-Department of Fisheries Resource Protection and Quality Management, the city’s shrimp farming area in 2009 was 7,800 hectares, mainly in two districts, Nha Be and Can Gio, which produced more than 9,100 metric tons of shrimp, with white shrimp making up more than 50 percent of total production. Over 80 percent of shrimp farmers were profitable.
In 2010, the Sub-Department will begin using mobile phones to disseminate crucial information to the farmers on stocking schedules, farm management, disease problems and water quality monitoring.
Government Banks Forgive Debt of Binh Dinh Shrimp Farmers
Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung has instructed the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development in Binh Dinh Province to use provisions from the Phuoc Hoa Commune People’s Credit Fund to clear the debts of shrimp farmers in Tuy Phuoc District. Accordingly, a total debt of $282,000 incurred by 165 farmers will be written off.
In 2007 and 2008, the Government ordered the banks to write off over $800,000 in farmer debt.
Source: Sàigòn. Banks to Clear Debt for Binh Dinh Province Farmers. H. Trong, translated by Thuy Doan. January 30, 2010.