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Zeigler Introduces “Synthetic Artemia”

A 100% Replacement for Artemia!



With customers in more than fifty countries, Zeigler, a privately owned feed company in Gardners, Pennsylvania, USA, has been in business for 75 years and currently markets a complete line of aquaculture feeds—including shrimp growout feeds and shrimp hatchery feeds.


It recently announced a new product that completely replaces the need for Artemia (small crustaceans that are used to feed the larval stages of farm-raised shrimp) in shrimp hatcheries.  Tim Zeigler, Vice President of Sales, said, “This product comes along at a critical time when economic conditions are forcing the industry to seek out more cost-effective solutions.”


Neil Gervais, Hatchery Product Manager at Zeigler and the driving force behind the development of the new product, has managed numerous large-scale shrimp hatcheries in the Western Hemisphere.  He says, “The results have been outstanding.  Feedback from our testing labs has indicated that overall survivals increased up to 30%.  In addition, the time to PL-10 has been shortened by 2-3 days.  Testing with clients replacing 100% Artemia has consistently outperformed control tanks fed natural Artemia in survival, growth and staging.”


Preliminary economic modeling suggests that hatcheries will be able to reduce their direct feeding costs by $50-$100 and total production costs by $100-$200 per million PLs produced!  Furthermore, hatchery managers will now have access to a more predictable and biosecure diet.


Artemia have been a staple of the shrimp hatchery industry for more than 30 years.  They are a great larval feed, but their cost, availability and quality are highly variable, making it very difficult to predict hatchery costs.  Artemia production also involves extra costs related to shipping, storage, hatching and disinfection, all of which must be accomplished with trained personnel.  Finally, Artemia can introduce undesired pathogens.



Frequently Asked Questions


What is EZ Artemia?


EZ Artemia is a liquid-based microcapsule, an enhanced copy of the nutritional value of Artemia, without the complications of a live product.


What is the difference between the new product and the original EZ Artemia?


The new product reduces the need for Artemia to zero.  The original product reduced it to 30%.


What sizes are available?


EZ Artemia is available in two sizes: 50-200 microns and 300-500 microns.


The 50-200-micron size is for zoea-1 to PL-2.  The small size (especially when compared to Artemia nauplii at 300 microns) makes it much easier for small-mouthed, early-stage larva to eat them.  The 300-500-micron size is for PL-3 and up.  It’s ideal for larvae that are accustomed to feeding on larger live Artemia or enriched biomass.


What percent of natural Artemia will EZ Artemia replace?


In production trials where it was tested as a 100% replacement for Artemia, EZ Artemia gave better results with higher survivals, larger PLs and faster growth than controls fed Artemia!


How does this product save the hatchery money?


EZ Artemia does not require the extra personnel, tanks, pumps, blowers and freezers associated with Artemia.  Those costs add up to $15 per kilogram to the cost of Artemia production.  It has also been shown that the use of EZ Artemia can cut up to three days off the length of the culture cycle due to the faster growth rates that it promotes.  This can save the hatchery several hundred dollars for each million of PLs produced.


What characteristics does EZ Artemia have that make it a good diet for use in larval rearing?


Its specific gravity is close to that of water, so it’s very buoyant.  It remains in the water column for a long time, even with minimum aeration.  It’s a microcapsule, so its nutrients don’t leach into the water, and it doesn’t cause fouling.


What other benefits can be seen over traditional diets?


A liquid diet has a soft texture that is easily accepted by larvae.  EZ Artemia is processed at low temperatures to preserve the quality of its ingredients during manufacturing.  Probiotics are added to aid in larval digestion, water quality and pathogen control.


How can EZ Artemia help with biosecurity in a hatchery?


Hatched Artemia are known vectors of many pathogenic bacteria.  EZ Artemia has been shown to be free of all known shrimp pathogens.


Does it need special storage?


The product has a shelf life of 1-2 years if kept in a cool location (22 degrees C).  It can be refrigerated, but not frozen.  Open containers can be used for up to 6 weeks if maintained inside a refrigerator.


How do you feed it?


Shake the jug, pour a measured amount of EZ Artemia into a beaker of water and then pour that mixture into your larval rearing tank.  Nothing could be EZier!


Where can I find more information on EZ Artemia?


Click on the following link: http://zeiglerfeed.com/product_literature/aquaculture literature.shrimp hatchery/EZ_Artemia_EN.pdf.


Information: Neil Gervais, Zeigler Bros., Inc., 1134 Shillington Drive, Katy, Texas 77450, USA (phone 1-717-968-6917, emails neil.gervais@zeiglerfeed.com and ecneil2@yahoo.com).


Sources: 1. Email from Neil Gervais to Shrimp News International.  New Synthetic Artemia Shows Great Economic Benefits.  August 20, 2009.  2. Telephone conversation with Neil Gervais, Cheryl Shew and Tim Zeigler on August 21, 2009.  3. Bob Rosenberry, Shrimp News International, September 4, 2009.



Country Reports


Queensland—Marine Worms


When managed in the appropriate manner, sandworms act as a natural vacuum for shrimp farm wastes—and they make an excellent feed for shrimp broodstock!  With a second federal grant, scientists at the Bribie Island Research Centre (BIRC) are continuing their studies into systems that use marine worms to consume shrimp pond wastes.  The new grant will be used to help industry implement the sandworm technologies that were developed by BIRC during the project’s pilot phase.  They demonstrated excellent solids and chlorophyll removal and maintenance-free operations for production of about 400 grams of worms per square meter of sand bed during the term of a shrimp crop (16 weeks).


The new funding will be used over the next two years to help shrimp farmers in the Logan, Pumicestone and Burnett regions construct and test sandworm filter beds.  The project is designed to investigate construction methods, water requirements and worm biomass productivity.


Information: http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au.


Source: Queensland Aquaculture News.  Editors, Ross Lobegeiger and Max Wingfield.  Queensland’s Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (Bribie Island Research Centre, P.O. Box 2066, Woorim, Queensland 4507, Australia, phone 07-3400-2040, fax 07-3408-3535).  Marine Worm Research Funded.  Paul Palmer.  Page 5, Issue 32, Received in August 2009.



Greeks Looking for Investments


On August 13, 2009, Rene Montero, Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries, and Erwin Contreras, Minister of Economic Development, Commerce, Industry and Consumer Protection, met with representatives of Hellenic Fish Farming SA, a Greek fish farming company that has been listed on the Athens Stock Exchange since 2000, to discuss potential investments in Belizean aquaculture and fisheries.  They will visit the Nova Shrimp Farm.


Source: Caribbean Net News.  Belize Ministers Meet with Greek Fish Farming Investors.  August 15, 2009.


Live Lobster Transport to Denmark


In June, 2009, the Maersk Line (a USA-based shipping and maritime services company) and its technology partner Aqualife shipped live lobsters from Canada to Copenhagen by sea, an achievement that could bring down costs and reduce the environmental impact of lobster transport around the world.  Maersk and Aqualife are also shipping live mussels, clams and oysters to the Netherlands and Spain.


Source: Seafood.com (an online, subscription-based, fisheries news service).  Maersk Line Teams with Aqualife to Deliver Live Lobsters from Canada to Denmark by Sea.  Ken Coons (phone 1-781-861-1441, email kencoons@seafood.com).  Editor and Publisher, John Sackton (phone 1-781-861-1441, email jsackton@seafood.com).  August 20, 2009.



Shell Biodiesel


Reuters reports:


Environmentally friendly fuel does not immediately spring to mind when peeling shrimp, but Chinese scientists claim shrimp shells may play an important role in improving biodiesel production efficiency.


Scientists at Hua Zhong Agriculture University in Wuhan Province experimented with chitin, the main component in shrimp shells, and found that it helped convert organic oils into biodiesel at a rapid rate.  “It can achieve as much speed and efficiency as traditional catalysts in biodiesel production without environment pollution and resource waste,” Xinsheng Zheng, one of the scientists involved in the research, told Reuters.


To convert organic oils faster and under less extreme heat, a liquid catalyst, such as sodium hydroxide, is usually used.  The scientists found that when they carbonized a small amount of chitin it became very porous, making it easier for the catalyst to attach itself and do its work.


Traditional catalysts have to be neutralized and washed after a reaction, creating large amounts of wastewater.  Shrimp shells remain solid, can be reused up to 10 times, are biodegradable and will not harm the environment when eventually discarded.


Source: Reuters.  New Research Peels Prawns Apart to Make Biodiesel.  Nina Chestney (with additional reporting by Niu Shuping in Beijing; editing by James Jukwey).  August 13, 2009.





The National Centre for Sustainable Aquaculture (NCSA) has a position open for a coordinator in the state of Andhra Pradesh.




• Work experience at a shrimp farm or hatchery.


• Bachelor of Science in Fisheries with five years experience or a Masters in Fisheries or Biology with two years experience.


• English and Oriya language skills a must.


• Maximum age 35 years.


In addition, NCSA has two positions open for field managers in the state of Orissa.




• Work experience at a shrimp farm or hatchery.


• Maximum age 33 years.


• Bachelor of Science in Aquaculture with five years experience or a Bachelor of Science in Fisheries with two years experience.


• English and Oriya language skills a must.


Application Deadline:  September 9, 2009.


Information: National Centre for Sustainable Aquaculture, Plot No. 8, SBI Officer’s Colony, Rajendra Nagar, Kakinada - 533 003, Andhra Pradesh, India.


Source: CareerDrive.com.  NCSA Orissa Wants State Coordinator & Field Managers.  August 27, 2009.



European Union Threatens to Ban Shrimp Imports


During January-July 2009, the European Union rejected more than 50 shrimp shipments from India because of antibiotic residues, bacteria, heavy metals or unhygienic conditions.  The total number of rejections in 2008 was around 30.  In 2009, Belgium accounted for the highest number of rejections (20), followed by England, Germany and France.


The EU has urged the Export Inspection Council of India (EIC) to provide antibiotic-free and health certificates with every shrimp shipment.  Sources said that EIC would soon inspect all the farmed shrimp exported from India.


Beginning in January 2010, the EU will require that all shrimp imports from India carry certificates.


Source: Business Standard.  Shrimp Exports to Be Hit as EU Keeps Rejecting Consignments.  George Joseph.  August 12, 2009.



Andhra Pradesh—Early Harvest


Seafood exporters in the state of Andhra Pradesh are advising shrimp farmers to go for an early harvest.  Surya Rao, President of the AP Seafood Exporters Association, said: “We are getting major orders for 40 and 50-count tiger shrimp.  ...International prices are very attractive for these count shrimp, hence, we are suggesting aqua farmers to go for early harvesting.”


In Andhra Pradesh, shrimp ponds cover approximately 50,000 hectares and yield over two metric tons per hectare.  Exporters are currently offering $6.17 per kilogram for 30-count tiger shrimp, $4.95 to $5.15 for 40-count shrimp and $4.10 to $4.30 for 50-count shrimp.


Rao said: “Due to short supply of 40 and 50 counts from other countries, importers in Japan, the USA and the European Union have not reduced prices for the Indian shrimp.  ...If the farmers wait for 30-count shrimp, they have to invest additional amounts for feed.  Moreover, they would have to wait for another 20-30 days for harvesting and during this period shrimp may get diseases.  Keeping all these factors in mind, a majority of farmers are evincing interest in early harvesting during this season.”


Source: Business Standard.  Shrimp Farmers Go for Early Harvest in Andhra.  V.D.S. Rama Raju.  August 13, 2009.



Shortage of Penaeus monodon Broodstock


Wild Penaeus monodon broodstock has become rarer and more expensive over the past ten years because of overfishing and declining water quality in their coastal habitats.


Hatcheries now pay anywhere from $15 to $100 for female broodstock, compared with only $7.50 during the 1985-1995 period.


Haerani Saleh, the head of the East Kalimantan Fisheries and Maritime Affairs Agency, acknowledged that his province could not produce enough postlarvae because of the shortage of broodstock.  In the past, the agency captured large tiger shrimp from the waters off eastern Kalimantan Province.  During the 1990s, Haerani said they caught about 500 females every month.  Now, they’re catching 250 a month.


Source: Jakarta Globe.  Some Prawn Breeders Struggle to Meet Demand as Stock Grows Rarer, Pricier.  Arti Ekawati.  August 19, 2009.



Shrimp Production Statistics


In 2008, 1,950 hectares of shrimp ponds were in production; in 2009, 2,100 hectares are in production.  Production has been forecast at 4,300 tons in 2009.  The government says that all shrimp farmers now have crop insurance.


Source: YouTube.  Iran’s Shrimp Farms Boosted.  August 16, 2009.



For Sale—Wild Penaeus monodon Broodstock


Andrisa (marbvil@tdm.co.mz) writes:


Our company collects and exports wild Penaeus monodon broodstock from Mozambique.  The animals are healthy, with almost no possibility of infection.  Since 1997, when we started collecting wild stock, we have never seen any signs of viruses.


These animals are ideally suited for initiating a breeding program or for production of postlarvae.  The percentage of gravid females and the growth rate are normal for wild stocks.  Our claim to fame is healthy animals.


Information: email marbvil@tdm.co.mz, webpage http://www.vilanculo.com.


Source: Email to Shrimp News International from Andrisa on August 15, 2009.

Northern Marianas Islands

Saipan Aquaculture—Looking for Customers in Europe


My name is Anthony Pellegrino and I am the president of Saipan Aquaculture, Inc.  We are located in Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands.  I wish to announce to any potential buyers that I am offering “fresh” chilled shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) for sale to customers in Europe.  Currently we are shipping some shrimp to the United States.  We do not freeze our shrimp.  They are white Pacific shrimp and are all fresh and chilled.  Customers rave about their sweet taste.


Source: Email to Shrimp News International from Anthony Pellegrino (tonypell@saipan.com) on August 20, 2009.

United States

Florida—Aquaculture Certification Council


On August 17, 2009, the Aquaculture Certification Council, a non-profit organization that certifies hatcheries, farms and processing plants for compliance with Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) standards, announced a major change in the way it will conduct facility inspections.


ACC President Jim Heerin said ACC plans to transition from using individual evaluators to coordinating with ISO-certified inspectorates in engaging evaluators.  The transition, which is already underway, will be completed during 2010.  The initial certification bodies are Global Trust (formerly IFQC) and Michigan-based NSF.  More groups will be enlisted over time, Heerin said.


As part of this transition, ACC will identify itself as “BAP Certification Management to reflect its new focus on managing the certification of BAP standards, as well as on educating and training producers in developing countries to “encourage development of responsible, sustainable aquaculture,” Heerin said.


Heerin described the transition as a “key milestone for the BAP program as it evolves to meet marketplace requirements.”  The use of ISO-certified inspectorates allows BAP certification to comply with the most discriminating international criteria, particularly benchmarking with the Global Food Safety Initiativenow underwayas well as the Food and Agriculture Organizations Technical Guidelines on Aquaculture Certification, which are currently being developed.  Heerin emphasized that the BAP program continues to require all evaluators to meet basic education and experience requirements and to be trained by ACC.


BAP-certified processing facilities now produce in excess of 400,000 metric tons of shrimp and 100,000 tons of tilapia—“vastly more than any other certification program or standards,” said Bill More, ACC Vice President.


Heerin said BAP evaluators will continue to conduct inspections during the transition, in conjunction with ISO-certified inspection bodies, and ACC staff will continue to play a vital role in managing the certification process: “ACC has established a global reputation for the qualifications and expertise of its staff” he said.  “For this reason, the ACC staff is uniquely qualified to manage the certification process and play a role in the development of responsible, sustainable aquaculture.”


On July 17, 2009, I chatted with Jim Heerin about ACC’s affiliation with the ISO-65 program:


Shrimp News: How will the current pool of ACC certifiers be affected by this change?


Jim Heerin: Basically, they won’t be affected at all; they will just be selected through a slightly different process.


Shrimp News: How will the change affect your relationship with the Global Aquaculture Alliance, whose standards you use for the BAP certification program?


Jim Heerin: Since we will continue to use the BAP standards developed by GAA, that relationship won’t change much either, but we will be another arms length away from GAA, which is a good thing because we have been accused of being too close.


Information: Jim Heerin, Aquaculture Certification Council, 706 North Suncoast Boulevard, Crystal River, Florida 34429, USA (phone 1-404-377-2233, email aquacert@tampabay.rr.com, webpage http://www.aquaculturecertification.org).


Sources: 1. Telephone conversation with Jim Heerin.  Bob Rosenberry.  Shrimp News International.  July 17, 2009.  2. The Global Aquaculture Alliance.  News Release.  ACC Announces Transition to ISO-Certified Inspectors for Best Aquaculture Practices Certification.  August 17, 2009.


United States

Louisiana—Shrimp Fishermen


The Associated Press reports:


On August 19, 2009, Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal asked the federal government to investigate whether foreign countries are unfairly manipulating shrimp prices.


In a letter to Gary Locke, USA Commerce Secretary, and Shara L. Aranoff, head of the USA International Trade Commission, Jindal said he wants to make certain that foreign countries aren’t harming his state’s shrimp industry.


Jindal’s request came a day after hundreds of shrimpers protested at the state Capitol, threatening to go on strike because low prices make it impossible for them to make a profit.  Shrimpers complained that their product can sell for up to $4 per pound at market, but they only get paid up to 75 cents.


“The effects of cheap, foreign shrimp imports, together with drastic reductions in dockside shrimp prices, threaten the economic sustainability of the domestic shrimp fishery in Louisiana, as well as in our neighboring states,” Jindal wrote.


Source: Seafood.com (an online, subscription-based, fisheries news service).  Louisiana Gov. Jindal Calls for Federal Probe of Alleged Foreign Manipulation of U.S. Shrimp Market.  Ken Coons (phone 1-781-861-1441, email kencoons@seafood.com).  Editor and Publisher, John Sackton (phone 1-781-861-1441, email jsackton@seafood.com).  August 20, 2009.


United States

Mississippi—Gulf Coast Research Laboratory


The Gulf Coast Research Lab in Ocean Springs is expanding its Cedar Point campus.  Several new buildings are taking shape, while others are in the planning stages.  A prototype commercial shrimp culture operation is up and running.


Source: WLOX.com.  GCRL Cedar Point Campus Expanding.  Steve Phillips (sphillips@wlox.com).  August 20, 2009.

United States

Texas—Last Chance for Short Course


Granvil Treece, Aquaculture Specialist at Texas A&M University’s Sea Grant College Program, reports:


Last call.  Registration is closing for the 24th Annual Texas Marine Shrimp and Marine Finfish Culture Short Course to be held in Port Aransas from September 30 to October 6, 2009.  For more information, click here.


Information: Granvil Treece, Aquaculture Specialist, Texas A&M University, Sea Grant College Program, 2700 Earl Rudder Freeway South, Suite 1800, College Station, Texas 77845, USA (phone 1-979-845-7527, fax 1-979-845-7525, email g-treece@neo.tamu.edu, website http://texas-sea-grant.tamu.edu).


Source: Email from Granvil Treece to Shrimp News International on September 1, 2009.


United States

Washington DC—Government Approves Open-Ocean Aquaculture


On September 3, 2009, the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), within the Department of Commerce, approved plans to permit open-ocean aquaculture in the Gulf of Mexico.


Source: Email from Intrafish.com (an online, subscription-based news service, newsletter@intrafish.com) to Shrimp News International.  Subject: Breaking News/U.S Approves Open-Ocean Aquaculture.  September 3, 2009.



Tracking Chemicals, Antibiotics and Product


In cooperation with the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), Vietnam’s Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Development says it will develop a system for tracking farmed shrimp.  The tracking system will include information on antibiotics, chemicals, sizes, types, colors and diseases.


Source: Seafood.com (an online, subscription-based, fisheries news service).  Vietnam’s New Seafood Tracking System Designed to Include Antibiotic and Chemical Use.  Ken Coons (phone 1-781-861-1441, email kencoons@seafood.com).  Editor and Publisher, John Sackton (phone 1-781-861-1441, email jsackton@seafood.com).  August 19, 2009.

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