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Friday, June 12, 2009

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Kona Bay Marine Resources

George Chamberlain’s New Shrimp Farm




A subsidiary of Integrated Aquaculture International (IAI) has purchased a majority interest in Sunrise Capital, Inc., a Hawaiian holding company doing business as Kona Bay Marine Resources, which is engaged in shrimp broodstock production, postlarvae production, farming, processing and marketing.  George Chamberlain, one of the principals of IAI and now president of Sunrise Capital, Inc., says, “Our challenge is to improve the business.  We brought John Rocha, our geneticist from Brazil, over to Kauai a few weeks ago, and he reported that Kona Bay has a richer collection of family lines than he realized.  He designed a breeding plan for evaluating the lines in our commercial ponds in Hawaii, but also in other production regions around the world.  This will allow us to develop a breeding program specifically customized for various clients and production regions.”



“We are also exploring which species to rear in the growout ponds.  For sure we’ll raise vannamei in some, but we also plan to try monodon at some point as well as some marine fish.  We are also trying to get set up to rear clams in the effluent.  As it turns out, Kona Bay has been a clam seed supplier for years.  It spilled some seed into one of its shrimp ponds last year and ended up producing 15,000 pounds of clams without even trying!  Fun stuff.”



“Ken Morrison, a major player in the development of the shrimp farming industry in Ecuador from the 1970s to the 1990s, is another principal in IAI.  He’s 88 and still going strong!  I’m attaching a PowerPoint file with photos of the first visit that he and I made to the Kauai facilities in March 2009.  He was very impressed with the facilities and the staff.”




Pictures from Chamberlain’s Power Point File



Ken Morrison and Jim Sweeney, who is now Vice President of Sunrise Capital






Information: For further information about Kona Bay Marine Resources and Integrated Aquaculture International, contact Jim Sweeney, Vice President of Sunrise Capital (email james4shrimp@aol.com) or George Chamberlain, President of Sunrise Capital (email georgec@integratedaquaculture.com).


Source: Email to Shrimp News International from George Chamberlain on May 29, 2009.




Country Reports


New Food Safety Law


On May 31, 2009, Chinese authorities pledged to use a new Food Safety Law, which went into effect on June 1, 2009, as a platform to intensify monitoring and law enforcement of its food production systems, hoping to curb the repeated food scandals that have battered its reputation and consumer confidence.


China aims to improve the efficiency of its food safety monitoring network through tougher standards, strict supervision, a recall system for substandard products and severe punishment of offenders.


The Ministry of Health will coordinate the implementation of the law, and the Ministry of Agriculture will formulate regulations on the proper use of feed, feed additives and the quarantine of animals.


Source: Seafood.com (an online, subscription-based, fisheries news service).  Chinese Authorities Vow to Ensure Food Safety as New Law Takes Effect Today.  Ken Coons (phone 1-781-861-1441, kencoons@seafood.com).  Editor and Publisher, John Sackton (phone 1-781-861-1441, email jsackton@seafood.com).  June 1, 2009.


Dominican Republic

Taiwan Transfers Shrimp Farm to the Government


The Taiwanese Technical Mission has transferred its shrimp farm in Puerto Viejo, Azua, to the Dominican Ministry of Environment.


Source: DominicanToday.com.  Trade Between Dominican Republic and Taiwan Increases.  June 1, 2009.


Building Two Big Broodstock Facilities


Made Nurdjana, Indonesia’s Director General of Fisheries and Fish Breeding, said Indonesia imported 90 percent of its shrimp broodstock in 2008, most of it from the United States.  To lower its broodstock costs and ultimately its seedstock costs, Indonesia plans to build two Penaeus vannamei broodstock production facilities, one in Situbondo, a county in East Java, and one on Bali.  They should be in production by October 2009 and could slash broodstock imports by 70%!


Indonesia hopes to increase production of farmed shrimp to 540,000 metric tons in 2009, which would result in the need for 52.3 billion shrimp postlarvae.


Source: Boletin Informativo (Ecuador’s Camara Nacional de Acuacultura).  Editor, Jorge Tejada (jtejada@cna-ecuador.com).  Indonesia expanding domestic shrimp broodstock production.  May 29, 2009.


Mixing Up Vannamei’s Genes


By crossbreeding nonindigenous Penaeus vannamei from local farms with P. vannamei broodstock imported from the United States (Florida), government researchers have developed a hardy strain of vannamei that is cheaper to produce and grows faster.


Called “Indu Vannamei Nusantara I”, or IVN-I, the new strain was developed by the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries research office in Situbondo, East Java.


On May 29, 2009, the first commercial production of IVN-I shrimp broodstock began at new facilities in Situbondo and Bali.


Shrimp farming is one of the country’s most important fishery-related commodity sectors, with $690.3 million worth of exports flowing to the United States in 2007, roughly 30 percent of total shrimp exports of $2.3 billion.


On May 28, 2009, Made L. Nurdjana, Indonesia’s Director General of Fisheries and Fish Breeding, said IVN-I “is highly resistant to shrimp disease and can be harvested faster for a more affordable price.”


Shrimp hatcheries will be able to buy one pair of IVN-I broodstock for $4.94 to $7.41.  That’s about 16 percent to 18 percent of the cost of broodstock from the United States.


“The more affordable the broodstock, the less farmers have to pay to buy shrimp fry,” he said.  “By using new varieties, for example, farmers will only have to pay [around $1.50 for a 1,000] shrimp fry.  This can reduce production costs.”


The price of a pair of Florida shrimp broodstock is $29.65 to $39.54, forcing farmers to pay [around $3.50 for a 1,000] fry.  During their life cycle, a pair of high quality broodstock is able to produce 700,000 shrimp fry.


The crossbreed, Made said, can be harvested in three and a half months, a half month less than the Florida variety, so savings on feed are significant.  The new variety is also better suited to Indonesia’s weather and is considerably more resistant to disease.


The shrimp hatchery industry in Indonesia requires around 900,000 to 965,000 Penaeus vannamei broodstock a year.  Currently, it imports 320,000 (mostly from the USA) and produces 640,000 domestically.


Iwan Sutanto, chairman of the Indonesian Shrimp Club, praised the development of the new broodstock production facilities.  “This could push smaller breeders to develop new varieties and reduce national dependency on bigger companies,” Iwan said.


Source: Jakarta Globe.  Prawn to Run: Scientists Pioneer Fast-Growing Shrimp for Farmers.  Arti Ekawati.  May 30, 2009.



High Alkalinity


Bert Knelissen (heinskn@wxs.nl): I have a shrimp farm in Medan, Indonesia.  We are experimenting with bioflocs.  We use well water with the following profile:


Salinity, 14 parts per thousand.

Alkalinity, 600 milligrams per liter.

Calcium Hardness, 1,000 milligrams per liter.

Magnesium Hardness, 1,900 milligrams per liter.


Calcium and magnesium were measured as CaCO3, not as ions.


Is the alkalinity too high for stocking Penaeus vannamei?


We acclimatized the PL to pH (8.2) and temperature (30 degree Celsius), then stocked at 200 PL-10s per m2.  We did not acclimatize based on alkalinity difference.  The salinity was already adjusted by the hatchery.  After 90 days of culture we experienced high mortality rates and all the dead shrimp had soft shells and some showed incomplete molting.  Could this be due to high alkalinity?  We also suspect that we had some hydrogen sulfide build up because there were some dead zones on the pond bottom (HDPE lined ponds) where the floc accumulated.  Could hydrogen sulfide poisoning be the cause of soft shell and molting difficulties?


Jim Anderson (jha.anderson@gmail.com): I think you have probably answered your own question. 
Hydrogen sulfide can cause soft shells, molting problems and increased 
 Your dead zones are likely to be causing most of the problems. The size of your pond will dictate your remedy, but you want to eliminate the 
build up solids and the potential ensuing issues with hydrogen sulfide. In other
 words, do not let your floc settle without removing it. Your problem could be related to pond design, aeration placement or solids
 removal. These three are usually interrelated. 

I would also double check your well water. Some wells have hydrogen 
sulfide in the water that needs to be removed. The larger issue is likely
 your solids buildup.

 I have not seen the high alkalinity that you experienced, so I don’t know about this. Your calcium to magnesium ratio is okay. It’s ideal to have ratios similar to
 sea water. Interesting that your base levels are about three times seawater for calcium and magnesium, which is why your alkalinity is also high.

 Good luck...once you address the core fundamentals, a floc system can work
 very well.


Bert Knelissen (heinskn@wxs.nl): Although we had to do an emergency harvest, I am kind of glad that it might have been the hydrogen sulfide that caused the soft shell and mortalities because pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, nitrogen and nitrite were stable and never even close to dangerous levels.


Source: The Shrimp List (a mailing list for shrimp farmers).  Subject: High Alkalinity.  June 1–2, 2009.


V-28 Protein Protects Penaeus vannamei from Whitespot


The discussion section of this study says: Our results showed that the rN-VP28 protein protected Pacific white shrimp against whitespot, in agreement with recent reports of Witteveldt and co-workers (2004 and 2006).  The difference in our study is that the rN-VP28 was produced in the gram-positive Brevibacillus choshinensis and not from gram-negative E. coli.  This offers some advantage since using a gram-positive bacterium, such as B. choshinensis, is safer because it doesn’t produce endotoxins like lipopolysacharrides.  B. choshinensis also produces a functional non-glycosylated recombinant protein that is directly secreted into the culture medium, making it easier to be purified and produced on a commercial level.


Source: Aquaculture Science (formerly Suisanzoshoku).  Protection of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei Against White Spot Virus Following Administration of N-terminus Truncated Recombinant VP28 Protein Expressed in Gram-positive Bacteria, Brevibacillus choshinensis.  Rapeepat Mavichak, Hidehiro Kondo, Ikuo Hirono, Takashi Aoki (email aoki@kaiyodai.ac.jp, Laboratory of Genome Science, Graduate School of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan, phone 81-3-5463-0556, fax 81-3-5463-0689), Hiroshi Kiyono and Yoshikazu Yuki.  Volume 57, Number 1, Page 83, March 2009.


Shrimp Farm Ponzi Scheme, Culprit Jailed


Isamu Kuroiwa, 60, Chairman of World Ocean Farm, collected $607 million from about 40,000 individual investors by falsely claiming their money would be invested in a shrimp-farming operation in the Philippines.


On May 21, 2009, the Tokyo District Court sentenced Kuroiwa to 14 years in prison for defrauding investors.


Six former executives of the World Ocean Farm, including Atsuhiro Kuroiwa, Kuroiwa’s 29-year-old son, who was in charge of the firm’s funding operations, were sentenced to two to three years in prison for conspiring with Kuroiwa in the fraudulent scheme.


The seven defendants were convicted of telling investors that they could double their money by investing in a shrimp farming business in the Philippines that did not exist.  They solicited the money at seminars in Japan from November 2006 to May 2007.


Source: Breitbart.com.  Ex-investment Firm Chief Gets 14 Yrs for Shrimp Farm Fraud+.  May 27, 2009.



Prices Down 25% to 30% from a Year Ago


According to Ricardo Michel Luna, head of the Pacific offshore ship owners union, prices for boat-caught shrimp have fallen between 25% and 30% compared to 2008.


With prices falling nearly 30%, the fishing sector currently faces a marketing crisis for its products.  “Ocean Garden has not even sold 30% of its inventory of shrimp.  In the international market, this situation is critical because there are no sales,” Luna added.  He said that marketing shrimp has turned out to be the industry’s biggest problem and that the best solution to that problem was developing a stronger domestic market.  Luna said, “Coordination to enter the domestic market is required.  The European market is far from our reach due to all the strict laws that must be followed.  Our best alternative is the domestic market.”


Yet, boat-caught shrimp must compete with an increasing amount of domestically produced farmed shrimp, which sells at a lower price.  “Farmed shrimp is definitely impacting the sale of wild shrimp because the reality is that people are not looking for quality, but rather price,” Luna said.


Source: Seafood.com (an online, subscription-based, fisheries news service).  Mexican Shrimp Export Sales Sluggish, Producers Want to Increase Share of Domestic Sales.  Translated by Angel Rubio Canas.  Editor and Publisher, John Sackton (phone 1-781-861-1441, email jsackton@seafood.com).  May 29, 2009.



Aerial Video of Shrimp Ponds in Southern Thailand


This one-minute video, filmed from a low-flying plane, shows a big cluster of fish and shrimp farms in southern Thailand.


Source: YouTube.  S Thailand Coastal Fish and Shrimp Farms.  May 27, 2009.


Leads the Way in Clean Seafood


Thailand’s Department of Fisheries (DOF) leads the world in the inspection and regulation of seafood products.  It sets strict conditions and guidelines for licensing all shrimp farms and processing plants.  It monitors every step of the farming process, from feed production to processing.  It ensures compliance of product quantity and quality with its own criteria and that of importing countries.


Currently, DOF checks 100% of the shrimp exported to Japan for oxolinic acid and oxytetracycline.  It checks on nitrofurans in shrimp shipped to the European Union and on malachite green in shrimp sold in South Korea.


Traceability is an important aspect of the DOF’s monitoring program.  Movement documents are required from hatcheries, farms, middlemen and processing plants.  Currently, 16,500 Thai farms are GAP certified (Good Aquaculture Practices) and 320 are CoC certified (Code of Conduct).  Thailand also has a rapid alert system, patterned after the one in the European Union, for announcing food and feed regulatory problems.  When Thai products are rejected, DOF will investigate and demand remedial action from the processing plant, followed by an audit and a report to the importing country.


Thailand’s Animal Epidemic Act of 2005 handed DOF the responsibility for monitoring and regulating diseases of imported and exported seafood.  In this area, DOF has focused on biosecurity and the propagation of disease-free fry and fingerlings.


Source: AQUA Culture AsiaPacific (Editor/Publisher, Zuridah Merican, email zuridah@aquaasiapac.com).  Sustainable Aquaculture/Innovations for Sustainability of Seafood Supply/Thailand’s Lead.  Jan Koesling (jan.koesling@bayerhealthcare.com, Regional Business Development Manager for Aquaculture and Animal Nutrition in Asia-Pacific for Bayer HealthCare Animal Health).  Volume 5, Number 3, Page 29, May/June 2009.


United States

Louisiana—Looking for Probiotics


I am looking for recommendations on bacteria/probiotics for treating fish and shrimp ponds.


Source: The Shrimp List (a mailing list for shrimp farmers).  Subject: Bio-products to Treat Shrimp/Fish Ponds.  From: Nancy Carpenter (newnucleus@aol.com).  May 29, 2009.

United States

South Carolina—Video of an Intensive Shrimp Production System


To view a ten-minute video of the Waddell Mariculture Center’s super-intensive shrimp production system, click on the link in the Source below.


You’ll see:


• shrimp research equipment

• greenhouses with and without shade cloth

• pumps, tanks, settling tanks and nursery systems

• heaters for winter production

• liquid oxygen tanks, an oxygen generator and airlift systems

• a raceway system with microbial flocs

• automatic feeders

• harvesting equipment, and a harvest into an empty, lined pond


Source: YouTube.  Waddell’s Greenhouse System.  May 28, 2009.

United States

Washington DC—Food Safety Bill


The House Energy and Commerce Committee, chaired by Henry Waxman (Democrat, California), has released a draft of its 2009 Food Safety Bill.  In addition to forcing all importers to register with FDA and pay an annual registration fee of $1,000, the bill:


• gives FDA the authority to require foreign governments to certify that their seafood exports meet all USA food safety requirements


• allows for third-party certifying entities


• gives FDA the authority to accredit laboratories and to only accept test results from the laboratories that it accredits.


• requires that laboratories share test results with FDA


• directs FDA to conduct a safety review of the use of carbon monoxide in meat, poultry and seafood products


• gives FDA mandatory, rather than voluntary, recall authority, and the power to quarantine or restrict imports from entire geographic areas


Source: Seafood.com (an online, subscription-based, fisheries news service).  Major Food Safety Bill Released by House, Would Give FDA Access to All Lab Inspection Results.  Editor and Publisher, John Sackton (phone 1-781-861-1441, email jsackton@seafood.com).  May 28, 2009.



Saltwater Intrusion in the Mekong Delta


In the Mekong Delta, saltwater intrusion causes huge losses to rice and vegetable farmers, and shrimp farms are one of the biggest contributors to the problem.  As they channel more and more saline water to their inland ponds, whole regions become unable to grow traditional crops.


In Hau Giang Province, shrimp farming has resulted in a severe shortage of freshwater for 8,000 families and caused damage to nearly 20,000 hectares of rice crops.


In Soc Trang Province, since mid-April 2009, saltwater intrusion has damaged some 10,000 hectares of paddy fields.  Rice seedlings on a further 5,000 hectares are currently delayed because of the salt concentration.


In Bac Lieu Province, over 25,000 hectares of paddy fields are flooded by saltwater, among them, more than 7,000 hectares of summer-autumn crops have been destroyed.


In Khanh Lam Commune in U Minh District of Cau Mau Province, saltwater has intruded into large areas of agricultural land.  Local farmers cannot plough the soil.  They can’t plant new crops.  They are facing huge losses because of low productivity.  To iron out the problems, Ca Mau has approved 23 irrigation projects, with a total investment of $225 million dollars, but so far, only four projects have received $6.2 million.


In 2006, the Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Development helped Bac Lieu and Soc Trang provinces start a $37 million irrigation project.  More than 60 drainages and dykes were built to prevent saltwater intrusion and to ensure enough fresh water for 150,000 hectares of rice.  Leaders in the two provinces, however, said that they only had enough funds to build one-third of the project and that construction has ground to a halt while they wait for more funds.  Thus far, the investment has not produced any results.


While waiting for the project to be completed, shrimp farmers continue to pump seawater into their ponds, causing further saltwater intrusion to some 60,000 hectares of land in the region.


Saltwater intrusion is also a big problem in Bangladesh.


Source: Saigon.  Saltwater Intrusion Worries Mekong Delta Farmers (translated by Phuong Lan).  May 26, 2009.

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