IHHNV and IMNV and Wild Brown Shrimp
Abstract: Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) attack many of the developmental stages of farmed shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). IHHNV causes a chronic disorder known as runt-deformity syndrome, and IMNV has been associated with mortality rates of up to 60% in shrimp ponds.
Very little information is available on the impact of IHHNV and IMNV on wild Brazilian shrimp. The objective of this study was to assess the susceptibility of native brown shrimp (P. subtilis) to IHHNV and IMNV. Three hundred healthy juvenile shrimp (average weight 2.56 grams) were placed in individual tanks with conditions similar to those in shrimp ponds. The experimental animals were separated into two groups (IHHNV and IMNV) and fed virus-laden diets for three days. Control groups received similar, but virus-free diets. The animals were monitored daily for clinical signs or behavior suggestive of viral infection. Biological samples for molecular and histological analyses were taken every 5 days over a period of 30 days.
Ten percent of the experimental animals tested positive for IHHNV and ten percent tested positive for IMNV.
Source: Aquaculture. Susceptibility of the Wild Southern Brown Shrimp (Farfantepenaeus subtilis) to Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis (IHHN) and Infectious Myonecrosis (IMN). Maria G.L. Coelho (email@example.com, CEDECAM, Instituto de Ciências do Mar, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Av. da Abolição 3207, Fortaleza, Ceará 60165-080, Brazil), Ana C.G. Silva, Cândida M.V. Vila Nova, João M.O. Neto, Antonio C.N. Lima, Rubens G. Feijó, Diego F. Apolinário, Rodrigo Maggioni and Tereza C.V. Gesteiraa. Volume 294, Issues 1-2, Pages 1-4, September 1, 2009.
50% of Shrimp Farmers Don’t Stock
According to Gorachand Mohanty, president of the Orissa chapter of the Sea Food Exporters Association of India, at least 50 percent of the shrimp farmers in India did not stock their ponds in 2009 because of the drop in shrimp prices on global markets in 2008.
As of August 1, 2009, seafood exporters will only be able to purchase shrimp from farms that have registered with the government. But the Fisheries Department has yet to register hundreds of shrimp farms. Many farmers converted their lands into shrimp ponds, and now the authorities refuse to register them. “We have urged the department time and again to treat shrimp culture as agriculture, like animal husbandry and poultry farming. But the authorities have turned a deaf ear to our demands,” said Mohanty, adding that shrimp production in Orissa had already dropped by 50% in 2009.
Source: Thai Shrimp Information. Indian Shrimp Farming Hard Hit Hard Times. July 14, 2009.
Fucoidan, Increases Growth, Helps with Vibrio
Abstract: Two feeding trials were conducted with Penaeus monodon postlarvae to evaluate the effects of dietary fucoidan (a sulfated polysaccharide found in several seaweeds, in this case Undaria pinnatifida) supplementation on growth performance and resistance to Vibrio harveyi infection. Graded levels of fucoidan (0, 100, 500, 1,000, 2,000 mg/kg diet) were mixed with a semi-purified diet containing 49.65% protein, 9.21% lipid and 6.12% ash and used in the feeding trials. In the first trial, each of the formulated diets was fed to triplicate groups of shrimp postlarvae (PL-15, average weight 21.7 mg) for 30 days. Results of the growth trial showed a significant weight gain and a lower feed conversion ratio in shrimp fed the 500 to 2,000 mg/kg diets, compared to shrimp fed the 100 mg/kg diet and the control diet.
A second 30-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of fucoidan supplementation on the resistance of postlarvae to V. harveyi. Shrimp fed the 500 to 2,000 mg/kg diets showed significantly higher survivals than those fed the control diet. The results suggest that fucoidan can be used to enhance growth and prevent or reduce mortalities in P. monodon postlarvae due to V. harveyi infection.
Source: Aquaculture Science (formerly Suisanzoshoku). Evaluation of Dietary Fucoidan Supplementation Effects on Growth Performance and Vibriosis Resistance of Penaeus monodon Postlarvae. Rex Ferdinand Traifalgar, Augusto E. Serrano, Valeriano Corre, Haruka Kira, Ha Thanh Tung, Fady Raafat Michael, Md. Abdul Kader, Asda Laining, Saichiro Yokoyama, Manabu Ishikawa (Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University, 4-50-20 Shimoarata, Kagoshima 890-0056, Japan, phone 81-99-2864180, fax 81-99-286-4141, email firstname.lastname@example.org) and Shunsuke Koshio. Volume 57, Number 4, Page 167, June 2009.
For a three-minute video of a shrimp harvest in Malaysia, click on the link below.
Source: YouTube. Prawn Harvest, Setiawan. July 6, 2009.
Ocean Farm Technologies
Ocean Farm Technologies, Inc., based in Maine, USA, develops and markets technology for aquaculture in exposed open ocean conditions. Founded in 2005, its Aquapods (large spherical cages) are currently being used for fish farming in Panama, Puerto Rico, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Maine.
In May 2009, Ocean Farm announced that one of its Aquapods was being tested by Pesquera Delly, a shrimp farming project in the Sea of Cortez, off the coast of Sonora. Recently, Pesquera Delly placed an order for two more Aquapods.
Composed of hundreds of individual triangular panels made of recycled polyethylene that are covered with steel wire mesh and joined together to form a geodesic sphere, each Aquapod has a volume of 957,000 gallons and a diameter of 64 feet. They are placed several kilometers from shore in waters around 192 feet deep, where they are protected from storms that would destroy floating pens. The pods also provide protection from predators that breach conventional net pens.
For pictures of the Aquapods, click here.
Information: Rosario Morales, Director, Pesquera Delly, S.A. de C.V. (a seafood processor), Av. Serdan y Calle 22, No. 75, Depto 1, 2o. Piso, Centro City, Guaymas, Sonora 85400, Mexico (phone 52-62-2222-8870, fax 52-62-2224-3633, email email@example.com).
Information: Steve Page, Ocean Farm Technologies, Inc., 114 Higgins Road North, Searsmont, Maine 04973, USA (phone 1-888-540-5554, fax 1-207-433-1300, email firstname.lastname@example.org, webpage http://oceanfarmtech.com).
Source: 1. SeaFood Business. Editor-in-Chief, Fiona Robinson (email@example.com). NewsLine/Aquaculture/Aquapods Sent to S. Korea, Mexico. Volume 28, Number 7, Page 10, July 2009. 2. Goliath (“Business Knowledge on Demand”). Pesquera Delly S.A. de C.V. July 20, 2009.
WAS Meeting in Veracruz, Preliminary Program
To view the preliminary shrimp farming program for the World Aquaculture Society meeting in Veracruz (September 25–29, 2009), click here.
Source: Email to Shrimp News International from Lorenzo Juarez, President of the World Aquaculture Society, on May 1, 2009.
Shrimp Wastes Made into Human Food Supplement
Students at the Iztapalapa Metropolitan Autonomous University (UAM) have developed a new process for making food supplements from shrimp wastes. Instead of using chemicals (soda) to accelerate the fermentation of the wastes, the team uses “a reactant designed and patented by UAM” to accelerate fermentation and halve the use of dangerous reactive agents and water.
The new, eco-friendly supplement contains chitosan, calcium, vitamin C and high quality pigments. Ileana Diaz Garay, a member of the team that designed the process of making the supplement, said, “Once the shrimp discard is introduced into the reactor, the substances obtained are processed and encapsulated for the supplement or can be sold as raw material as its quality is higher than that attained in the soda process in not being subjected to high levels of chemical substances.”
The team says their supplement has the potential for lowering cholesterol, reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, lowering weight and absorbing fat. They are working on ways to market it.
Source: FIS United States. Shrimp Discard Served Up as Nutritional Supplement. Analia Murias (firstname.lastname@example.org). July 11, 2009.
Paddy fields in Pyinsalu, Laputta Township, Irrawaddy Division, have been inundated with saline water let in by shrimp farmers hoping to harvest free seedstock from the incoming water. A farmer from Pyinsalu, said, “The shrimp farm owners, who acquired the fishing rights of sea water shrimp farming, continuously open and close the dyke which protected our paddy fields from saline water. They do this to catch shrimps and prawns. As a result the paddy fields were inundated with sea water damaging all the fields.”
Source: Mizzima. Saline Water from Prawn Farms Destroys Paddy Fields. July 10, 2009.
Jobs—Farm Managers, Filipinos Only
A project in the city of Dammam has ten shrimp farm manager positions open for male Filipinos between the ages of 25 and 45. Candidates must possess at least a bachelor’s degree in agriculture, aquaculture, forestry or a similar field and at least two years of working experience. Closing date: September 13, 2009.
Source: Ads Overseas Placement Agency, Inc. (a search/recruitment firm). Prospective Principal/Project: Fisheries Company/Shrimp Farm Manager (Dammam, Saudi Arabia). Posted July 16, 2009.
Florida—Darden Restaurants Awards Thai Union Seafood
On June 29, 2009, Darden Restaurants announced the recipients of its annual “William B. Darden Distinguished Supplier Awards.” Named for the company’s late founder, the awards recognize a select group of more than 1,500 suppliers from around the world who “go above and beyond” to contribute to the success of the company. “Supplying more than 1,700 restaurants throughout North America with more than $7 billion in annual sales requires an enormous amount of teamwork and collaboration,” said Barry Moullet, Darden’s Senior Vice President of Supply Chain.
One of the award winning companies was Thai Union Seafood, known for its contract farming arrangements with shrimp farmers in Thailand. Thai Union won its award for consistently providing Red Lobster with high-quality, value-added shrimp, while maintaining its focus on service, innovation, cost and sustainability.
Source: PR Newswire. Darden Restaurants Announces 2009 ‘William B. Darden Distinguished Supplier Award’ Winners. June 29, 2009.
In May 2009, USA shrimp imports increased for the third consecutive month, topping 85.1 million pounds, up 7.2 percent from May 2008, according to figures released by the National Marine Fisheries Service on July 10, 2009.
After falling 13.2% in January and 13.8% in February, USA shrimp imports rebounded in March, April and May, jumping 8.7, 6.3 and 7.2%, respectively.
Through May, however, shrimp imports were still down 2.1% from the same five-month period last year, to 421.4 million pounds.
USA shrimp imports from Vietnam, China and Malaysia were down 14.1, 26.7 and 37.7%, respectively, from last year. Imports from Mexico and India, however, were up 34.6 and 60%, respectively.
Imports from Thailand were down just 0.7% through April, to 125.1 million pounds, from last year. Imports from Indonesia were down 4%, to 76 million pounds, while imports from Ecuador were up 9.5%, to 6.1 million pounds.
Thailand, Indonesia, Ecuador, Vietnam and China were the United States’ top five shrimp suppliers in 2008, representing nearly three-quarters of total USA shrimp imports, which exceeded 1.24 billion pounds.
Texas—Brown Shrimp Fishery
The Gulf of Mexico’s brown shrimp fishery will be slightly below average for the just-begun fishing year, but that may make little difference to a market that has essentially abandoned the product and forced prices down to record lows with little consumption gains registered.
The National Marine Fisheries Service Laboratory in Galveston, Texas, has predicted a brown shrimp catch of 56.9 million pounds for the July 1, 2009, to June 30, 2010, fishing year. This is above the total for the just-ended fishing year when 49.2 million pounds of brown shrimp were landed in the Texas/Louisiana region of the Gulf of Mexico.
As the table shows, prices for every size of brown shrimp are lower than they were two years ago at this time. And even compared to a year ago, most commercially important sizes are down. On average, wholesale prices have dropped a whopping 18.1% over the last year. Compared to two years ago, current wholesale prices are down a less dramatic 6.1%.
Source: Seafood Trend Newsletter (independent coverage of the seafood market since 1984), 8227 Ashworth Avenue North, Seattle, Washington 98103-4434, USA (phone 1-206-523-2280, fax 1-206-526-8719, email email@example.com). Editor, Ken Talley. July 13, 2009.
Washington DC—FDA Shrimp Inspections
The Senate Appropriations Committee has published a 147-page advisory directed at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Department of Agriculture (USDA) and related agencies. The advisory contains two paragraphs that could affect the seafood industry. Both paragraphs direct FDA to “take action” on specific issues. The language is advisory, meaning the Committee is urging the FDA to take more action—but no law has been passed to make it act.
In one of the paragraphs, the Committee requests that FDA take more action on economic integrity issues:
“Seafood Economic Integrity—The Committee recognizes the importance of seafood to a healthy diet, but is concerned that FDA does not focus sufficient attention on economic integrity issues, particularly with respect to mislabeling of species, weights, country of origin and treatment. The Committee encourages FDA to work with States to more aggressively combat fraud in parts of the seafood industry.”
In the other paragraph, the Committee encourages FDA to develop a program for more inspections of imported shrimp for antibiotics.
“Antibiotics in Shrimp—The Committee is concerned about the contamination of farm-raised shrimp imports with banned antibiotics. The Food and Drug Administration currently inspects less than 2 percent of imported shrimp. The Committee strongly encourages FDA to develop, in cooperation with State testing agencies, a program for increasing the inspection of imported shrimp for banned antibiotics.”
Source: Seafood.com (an online, subscription-based, fisheries news service). Senate appropriations bill includes directives to FDA on shrimp inspection, and seafood economic.... Editor and Publisher, John Sackton (phone 1-781-861-1441, email firstname.lastname@example.org). July 9, 2009.
The Taura Syndrome Virus
In Zuila, a state in western Venezuela, the Taura virus (TSV) has reduced the production of farmed shrimp by 12,000 to 15,000 metric tons, representing a nearly 50 percent drop in national production of farmed shrimp. Several farms and at least four processing plants are “paralyzed”, according to the president of the Zuliana Region Development Corporation (Corpozulia), Carlos Martinez Mendoza.
The government is evaluating several options for reactivating the processing plants, including operating them as government/industry joint ventures or as communal projects with local governments.
Meanwhile, a technical committee—consisting of representatives of the ministries of Agriculture and Lands, Science and Technology, Food, the Socialist Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture (INSOPESCA), the National Institute of Aquatic and Insular Spaces (INEA) and Corpozulia—will be formed to analyze shrimp farming’s problems.
Shrimp Processing Plants Crying for Workers
Seafood processors in Soc Trang Province recruit workers, but few find the pay or the working conditions appealing.
A banner proclaiming a need for 500 workers hung outside Ut Xi Seafood Processing Company on July 10, 2009. Inside, Nguyen Tuan Anh, Deputy General Director of the company, complained: “We offer a lot of preferences for workers, especially local Khmer minority women. However, we have recruited only a few workers in the last month.”
Do Ngoc Tai, Deputy General Director of Kim Anh Company, which needs 300 workers, said that the company’s advertisement has been on TV for a month. The result to date: only 30 applications.
Sao Ta Import-Export Seafood Company seeks 700 new workers; Phuong Nam Company, 600; and Stapimex, 500. All of them offer working conditions described as “attractive”. Candidates only need to have good health and be able to read and write to earn $70 per month, paid weekly. Yet, would-be workers don’t show up.
Le Van Nhon of Ke Thanh Village said workers stand for 10 hours and are exhausted at the end of the day. “We go to bed as soon as we get to our room. We do not have strength to do anything else.”
Thach Thi Thu Suong of An My village said that she once worked for Ut Xi Company. “I worked at the shrimp shelling shop. I only earned $67.44 a month. Sometimes I had to work overtime, up to 12 hours, and got an extra $0.28 an hour,” she said. Suong said she only had about $16.86 left every month after she paid for meals and other basic needs. If Suong stayed home from work sick, her pay would be docked. “Sometimes I had to borrow money from relatives to pay for medicine when I was sick.... When they [the processing companies] need us, they entreat us to work for them. When they don’t need us any more, they throw us away,” Suong said, adding that workers have become tired of working for seafood processors that always squeeze them to produce more and more. Workers refuse the jobs because of “sweatshop” conditions.
The biggest worry of seafood workers is occupational disease. Tran Thi Na Ri of Phu My Village, who once worked for Sao Ta Company, said that she got headaches and other diseases when she worked for processing companies, where it was too cold. Na Ri said that a lot of her colleagues also could not bear the severe working conditions and had to quit.
Seafood processors must compete with rice granaries that pay higher salaries. Suong is now working for a rice granary and gets $3.93 to $4.50 a day. Tran Thi Thu in Tai Van village said that that she is harvesting rice and she can get some $11.24 a day, therefore, she does not even think of returning to the shrimp processing plants.
Source: Vietnam Net Bridge. Mekong Delta Seafood Packers Crying for Workers. July 13, 2009.
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