Jill Schwartz, Senior Communications Officer for Aquaculture at the World Wildlife Fund, prepared this profile on Linda Thornton, a member of WWF’s shrimp dialogue steering committee. Linda also manages a 1,000-acre shrimp farm and owns her own 100-acre shrimp farm.
Linda Thornton loves Belize. She moved there from her home state of Illinois 24 years ago. At the time, she was told by some people that she wouldn’t last a week in this relatively remote and quiet country. Perhaps that’s because they—and even Linda—did not realize how enthusiastic she would be about farming shrimp. Prior to moving to Belize, she had worked at King James Shrimp, the first indoor, recirculating, artificial seawater shrimp farm in the United States, basically her only experience in shrimp farming before packing her bags and moving south.
Linda’s passion for shrimp farming and for protecting the environment makes her one of the best advocates for sustainable aquaculture in Central America. Aqua Mar Belize, Ltd., the shrimp farm she manages, is one of the most economically and environmentally sustainable shrimp farms in Belize. At Aqua Mar (as well as many shrimp farms in Belize) water exchange rates have been lowered, feed conversion ratios have been reduced and recirculation systems are used in intensive systems.
Since she began working at Aqua Mar in 1996, the farm has grown from 80 acres to 1,000 acres. A hatchery and processing facility have also been added.
Linda uses what she learned at Aqua Mar, as well as her experience working at a variety of other shrimp farms in Mexico and Belize, to make her next adventure a success. Less than a year ago, she opened Cardelli Farms, in part as a way to celebrate her 50th birthday. She is the only woman in Belize—and one of only a few in the world—to own a shrimp farm. She is as modest about this as she is about her contribution to sustainable aquaculture.
Information: Linda Thornton, Aqua Mar Belize, Ltd., Independence Village, Big Creek, Stann Creek District, Belize (phone 501-520-3036, fax 501-520-3026, email email@example.com).
Information: Jill Schwartz, Senior Communications Officer, Aquaculture World Wildlife Fund, 1250 24th Street, NW Washington, DC 20037 USA (phone 202-822-3458, cell 202-290-6526, fax 202-861-8324, email firstname.lastname@example.org, webpage www.worldwildlife.org).
Source: World Wildlife Fund’s Webpage. Aquaculture/Belize “Grandma” Dedicates Her Life to Shrimp Farming and the Environment. Jill Schwartz. Posted mid-April 2008.
Over the last two years, twelve studies were carried out at Rio Grande University in southern Brazil on the economic feasibility of bio-floc shrimp farming. This paper summarizes those studies, which were conducted with Penaeus vannamei, P. paulensis and P. brasiliensis.
Nursery studies with paulensis and brasiliensis juveniles were conducted with five different protein levels (25, 30, 35, 40 and 45%), in clear and heterotrophic water, with and without artificial feed supplementation.
For vannamei, studies were carried out to determine the effect of salinity, light intensity and carbon source on bio-floc production and shrimp growth. The effect of a commercial probiotic containing three Bacillus species on bio-floc production was also investigated. Another experiment was done to compare vannamei growth rates in heterotrophic and autotrophic systems, and in a mix of the two. Finally, a pilot test was carried out in three raceways installed in a greenhouse-enclosed, bio-floc system.
High-density autotrophic systems produced better growth than heterotrophic systems, but the studies confirmed the technical and economical feasibility of bio-floc shrimp farming in greenhouse-enclosed raceways in southern Brazil.
Source: World Aquaculture Society. The CD of Aquaculture 2008 America (Orlando, Florida, USA, February 2008). Abstract 420. Present Status of Heterotrophic Super-Intensive Shrimp Culture in Southern Brazil. Wilson Wasielesky, Jr. (email@example.com), Eduardo Ballester, Mauricio Emerenciano, Dariano Krummenauer, Geraldo Foes, Gustavo Vita, Paulo Abreu, Clarisse Odebrecht, Leandro Godoy, Paula Maicá, Maude Borba, Sabrina Suita and Charles Froes (Laboratório de Maricultura, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, C.P. 474, Rio Grande (RS), 96201-900, Brazil).
What Happens when Farmed Shrimp Escape in Central Canada?
John Tremblay (firstname.lastname@example.org): Could Penaeus vannamei diseases spread to other indigenous species from a zero-exchange shrimp farm in central Canada [Strathmore, Alberta, 51° north latitude]? If P. vannamei escaped from a zero-exchange facility and made its way to a body of water, would it survive? What if the shrimp were acclimatized to fresh water conditions? You may find these questions rather humorous, but a task force in Canada is asking us these questions.
Durwood Dugger (email@example.com): In my opinion, and with all due respect, there is a problem with the task force’s questions. All things are “possible”! It is the probability of occurrence under a given set of criteria that must be dealt with in a rational and professional decision making process. When one asks a question in terms of “possibility”, he/she has already announced a “zero tolerance position” because in terms of “possibility”, the answer will always be, “Yes, it’s possible.” The people asking the questions are not going to be able to accept any answers given from this free advice list because we can tell from the questions they aren’t prepared educationally/technically to ask the questions, or have responsible expectations for their answers.
I suggest the task force and those interested in prejudice-free, realistic answers hire a competent, experienced and certified marine shrimp pathologist to review the aquaculture literature (related to shrimp and fish aquaculture pathology) for the past 40 years to answer the questions in terms of probabilities.
Dallas Weaver (firstname.lastname@example.org): Durwood, you are spot on as usual. Yes, some of these pathogens of concern can live in many species (whitespot for example). However, whether someone imports SPF or non-SPF shrimp into a biosecure facility is irrelevant to probabilities of setting viral pathogens loose in a new area. A much higher probability of transfer to native species comes from frozen shrimp imports with known viable pathogens, which can be used as fish bait with no regulations; even in California, which won’t allow non-SPF shrimp into quarantine facilities.
It is clear from the question that someone wants Canada to be as stupid as California.
Craig Browdy (email@example.com): We have been growing P. vannamei in South Carolina for many years. We have developed permitting protocols based on many years experience with the health and exotic species issues. The permit focuses on hatchery evaluations based on history, operation protocols (to promote health and preclude escapement) and contingency plans that go into effect to facilitate diagnosis and containment if a problem arises. We have also worked on biosecurity protocols based on HACCP type analyses, which can help assure shrimp health at the production facility. Feel free to contact me or have the responsible authorities contact me offline if they are interested in our protocols.
If the culture of an imported species is to succeed and be pursued in a responsible manner, a risk assessment and risk management type approach can bring risks to a level approaching zero while allowing for industry development particularly for a species like white shrimp in a geographic region like Canada. The chances of an escapee surviving and reproducing are truly negligible. Using SPF stocks from a hatchery with a long track record of disease testing can minimize disease risks.
See the following publication for some good information on disease status assurance: USMSFP suggested procedures and guidelines for assuring the specific pathogen status of shrimp broodstock and seed (Lotz, J.M., C.L. Browdy, W.H. Carr, P.F. Frelier and D.V. Lightner. 1995. In: Browdy, C.L. and Hopkins, J.S. (eds.). Swimming Through Troubled Waters, Proceedings of the Special Session on Shrimp Farming, Aquaculture 1995. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, LA USA, pp. 157-166).
Source: The Shrimp List (a mailing list for shrimp farmers). Subject: Penaeus disease & transmission. April 19-21, 2008.
Wanted—Consistent Supply of Penaeus vannamei Broodstock
Gulf Shrimp Company has a client on the coast of Iran that is building a shrimp hatchery and is looking for a consistent supply of Penaeus vannamei broodstock at competitive prices. Can anyone one help us? Please provide background information on the broodstock, along with the quantity you can provide and the lead time to process orders.
Information: Shubam Labam (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Source: AquaNic (The Aquaculture Network Information Center, a gateway to the world’s electronic aquaculture resources). Jobs Directory in cooperation with the WAS Employment Service. Search jobs. Supplier of Vannamei SPF brood stock to Iran. Posted: April 19, 2008.
WWF Shrimp Dialogue Meeting
The Aquaculturists and Shrimp Farmers of Madagascar (Groupement des Aquaculteurs et Pécheurs de Crevettes de Madagascar, GAPCM) and World Wildlife Fund, along with support from the French Agency for Development, are pleased to invite you to participate in the second workshop on Penaeus monodon shrimp farming standards, which will take place at the Carlton Hotel in Antananarivo, Madagascar, on June 3-4, 2008.
Building on the first workshop, which took place April 12-13, 2007, the objective of the second meeting is to follow through on the work that has already begun, refine the evolving shrimp farming standards, and select a steering committee.
Hotel Information: http://www.carlton-madagascar.com.
Registration Information: Eric Bernard (phone 33-6-98-40-53-93, email email@example.com); Georges Ramorasata (phone 261-20-22-628-29, email firstname.lastname@example.org); and Harifidy Ralison (phone 261-3312-814-54, email email@example.com). You must register before May 15, 2008.
Background: For information on the Shrimp Aquaculture Dialogue program and other dialogues, visit http://www.worldwildlife.org/aquadialogues.
Source: Email to Shrimp News International from Eric Bernard at the World Wildlife Fund on April 21, 2008.
The Ninth International Shrimp Culture Symposium and Trade Show will be held in Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico, on June 4-6, 2008. Previous symposiums in this series were been held in Nicaragua (2003 and 2007), Belize (2004) and Panama (1998, 1999, 2000, 2002 and 2005). Manuel Alzamora, Jr., president of Grupo de Ferias, Congresos y Eventos, S.A., has skillfully managed all of them.
Sponsors in Mexico
• Comisión Nacional de Acuicultura y Pesca (CONAPESCA)
• Centro de Investigación en Alimentación Y Desarrollo (CIAD)
• Municipio de Ahome
• Comité Estatal de Sanidad Acuícola de Sinaloa (CESASIN)
• Instituto Sinaloense de Acuicultura (ISA)
Topics on the Program
• Shrimp Production Techniques Where Whitespot Is Endemic
• Practical Applications of Pathology and Genetic Technology
• Marketing Strategies
• Certifications Required for Special Markets
• Techniques to Reduce the Costs of Production
• Harvesting Techniques to Improve Efficiency and Head-on Count
• Microbial Ecology
• Intensive System Engineering
• Aeration and Water Recirculation
• Pathology, Marketing and Trade
Donald Lightner, USA
Roger Doyle, Canada
Matthew Wood, USA
Tzachi Samocha, USA
Yoshi Hirono, USA
Wagner Vargas, Guatemala
Mario Hernández, USA
Alvin Stokes, USA
Jose Torres, Ecuador
Jorge Donoso, Ecuador
Darryl Jory, USA
Nicolas Rodríguez, Panama
Leobardo Montoya, Mexico
Julio Castañeda, Nicaragua
José Bolívar Martínez, Panama
Josef Barby, USA
Fernando Valenzuela, Mexico
Workshops after the Seminar
1. An update on the diseases of Penaeus vannamei due to WSSV, IMNV, NHP-B, and the nodavirus PvNV in the Americas, June 7, 2008, Dr. Donald Lightner.
2. An update on aeration techniques, June 7, 2008, Yoshi Hirono.
Source: Email to Shrimp News International from Manuel Alzamora, Jr., on April 23, 2008.
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan SyAqua, located on the island of Saipan, a USA territory in the Northern Marianas Islands, farms shrimp for the local market and supplies shrimp broodstock to hatcheries in Thailand and Indonesia. Established in 2004, it’s a joint venture with the SyAqua Group (Thailand and elsewhere around the world) and is an integral part of the group’s breeding program.
In December 2007, after a visit from the Thai Department of Fisheries, Saipan SyAqua was approved as a Penaeus vannamei broodstock supplier for shrimp hatcheries in Thailand. The Director General of Aquaculture in Indonesia has also approved the company as a broodstock supplier. A pilot shipment consisting of 250 broodstock (1:1 male:female) of 10-month-old broodstock have already been shipped to one of the largest hatcheries in Indonesia at $25 per animal, exclusive of freight and packaging cost.
The SyAqua Group is a multinational biotechnology company focusing on improving shrimp farm performance and shrimp meat quality. It’s a leader in applying advanced statistical methodology to improve genetic qualities in shrimp breeding. It has worked closely with the Oceanic Institute in Hawaii on a five-year, $16 million research project that started in 2002 to develop genetic lines and production techniques for the USA shrimp farming industry.
Glen Illing, managing director of the SyAqua Group, said, “Saipan is unique. It’s the closest USA territory to Asia. There are no other shrimp operations...which is important for biosecurity. As there are many economically devastating diseases that can afflict shrimp farming, a source of healthy broodstock is essential. ...We are building a better shrimp on the island of Saipan by improving growth rates, disease resistance and tolerance to adverse environment conditions. The result is more profits and better stability for shrimp farmers. We have opened our program to supply broodstock to the world’s shrimp farmers from this biosecure island and deliver genetic improvements from the SyAqua Group’s breeding program, an alternative to the Hawaii broodstock suppliers”.
On its farm, Saipan SyAqua uses a three-phase system to grow shrimp for the local market. To protect the environment from escaping shrimp, the government insists that all shrimp be grown in tanks. Currently, the farm has the capacity to produce about 500,000 shrimp a year.
Tony Pellegrino, entrepreneur and president of Saipan SyAqua, said: “Saipan SyAqua’s joint venture partnership with the SyAqua Group is very complimentary and works extremely well. We manage the production, and the SyAqua Group’s technical team handles the genetic program and broodstock sales.” He added that the farm has undergone major changes and that more land is being acquired to set up a laboratory, which will make the operation more efficient and enable it to increase the selection intensity and provide more data for the breeding program.
According to the shrimp farm’s operations manager, Rommel G. Catalma, Saipan SyAqua has received another order from Indonesia: “It will be for the same buyer in Indonesia, and again it is for 125 pairs. This is very good because it means it was happy with the first shipment. The price is still the same, $25 per animal, excluding packaging and freight.” Like the original shipment, the transaction netted the company $6,250. Catalma said the broodstock weighed between 30 and 45 grams each. They were airfreighted from Saipan to Indonesia via Japan and Singapore.
Currently, Saipan SyAqua is the only shrimp farm outside of Hawaii that exports Pacific white shrimp broodstock. Under the law, only USA territories are allowed to export the broodstock since it was developed by the Oceanic Institute in Hawaii, which receives federal funding for a shrimp farming program.
Catalma added that aside from that restriction, there are also stringent requirements on exporting broodstock to other countries. First, a farm or facility needs a two-year, disease-free certification from the University of Arizona, and then it has to pass the inspection of the department of fisheries of the particular country the company is exporting to.
Sources: 1. Aqua Culture AsiaPacific (Editor/Publisher, Zuridah Merican, email firstname.lastname@example.org). Now shrimp broodstock from Saipan. Volume 4, Number 2, Page 45, March/April 2008. 2. Saipan Tribune. Shrimp farm to export broodstocks anew to Indonesia. Mark Rabago. April 22, 2008.
Penaeus vannamei Production
The Philippine shrimp farming industry is back on its feet! Thanks to the white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei), farmers, hatchery operators and feed millers have renewed confidence and enthusiasm in shrimp farming.
P. vannamei is now the darling of the industry. With prices ranging from $4.90 to $5.40 a kilo for 12 to 15-gram shrimp and from $5.70 to $6.20 a kilo for 15 to 18-gram shrimp, and production costs of $2.70 to $3.40 a kilo, vannamei farming in the Philippines is turning out to be very profitable. It is not uncommon to see farmers making $10,000 to $15,000 per hectare per crop, especially those located near Metro Manila where buyers queue up at the farm to buy freshly harvested shrimp.
In intensive farming, typical production is between 7 to 12 metric tons per hectare per crop, during a growout period of 90-120 days. Survival is around 65-80% and feed conversion ratios (FCR) range from 1.3 to 1.5. Many farms start with a stocking density of 100-200 PLs a square meter, then do a partial harvest midway through the growout period. Contrary to earlier claims that vannamei will not work in large, shallow brackishwater ponds with zero biosecurity, a growing number of extensive farmers are now farming it in ponds that yield around one ton per hectare with a FCR of 0.7-1.1. Production costs using this system are only around $1.7 to $1.8 per kilo for 20 to 25-gram shrimp.
Whitespot is a big problem for vannamei farmers, especially during the cooler months of the year. It is interesting to note that extensive vannamei farms report that they have a much better chance of making money than extensive P. monodon farms. According to some farmers, vannamei can be marketable at six grams for $3.70 a kilo, while the same size monodon only sells for $2.50 a kilo. High domestic shrimp prices will not last long, probably not beyond 2010. Studies suggest that if farmers lower farm gate prices to $3.50 a kilo or less for 12 to l5-gram vannamei, the domestic market could expand to as much as 75,000 metric tons.
There are no official estimates on vannamei production in the Philippines for 2007, but production probably exceeded 5,000 metric tons, up significantly from an estimated 3,000 tons in 2006. This places vannamei production at around 12.5% of total shrimp production.
Philippine production of monodon remains stagnant at around 38,000 tons. Of this figure, only around 5,000 tons are from intensive farms, while the rest is from extensive farms that produce jumbo, 40 to 60-gram shrimp. With the ascendancy of vannamei, it is very likely that the farms facing difficulty with monodon will shift to vannamei, similar to the trend in many parts of Asia.
Monodon is expected to remain king on intensive farms on the islands of Negros, Cebu and Bohol, where high growth and survival rates have been sustained for the last five years. Typically, farmers from these areas harvest 4-6 tons per hectare per crop of 30 to 35-gram animals in 120-130 days with survivals of 80% and FCRs of 1.8-2.0. Unlike the intensive monodon farmers of the past, the present farmers are highly skilled and experienced. They also have a strong respect for the environment and practice proper pond preparation. They screen fry for diseases and have totally abandoned the use of antibiotics.
Source: Aqua Culture AsiaPacific (Editor/Publisher, Zuridah Merican, email email@example.com). White shrimp at 12.5% of Philippine shrimp production. Philip Cruz (firstname.lastname@example.org, an aquaculture consultant and owner of Cruz Aquaculture, which hatches and grows shrimp, crayfish and some marine fish). Volume 4, Number 2, Page 5, March/April 2008.
Sixth Philippine Shrimp Congress
The Sixth Philippine Shrimp Congress is scheduled for May 28-30, 2008. With the theme “Production Innovations and Market Access”, the congress will focus on cost efficiency, biosecurity and development of new markets for the giant tiger and white shrimp. The growing popularity of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) farming in the Philippines is expected to dominate discussions.
The three day congress and simultaneous trade exhibition expects to attract more than 700 participants, including hatchery owners, farmers, academics, government personnel, feed millers, suppliers, processors and exporters.
Here some of the items on the program:
Reviews of shrimp farming in Vietnam (Nguyen Binh, Bayer Animal Health), Thailand (Dr. Poernlerd Chanratchakool, Novozymes) and Ecuador (Fernando Garcia, Epicore Biotech Technologies)
The Philippine shrimp industry: the road ahead (Fred Yap, Aquaculture Consultant)
Opening up markets for Philippine shrimp: challenges and constraints (Lourdes Tanco, MIDA)
Trade developments with giant tiger shrimp on Negros Island (Roslyn Usero, NPPMC)
Sharing field experiences on giant tiger shrimp farming (B-meg Feeds, Oversea Feeds and CP Feeds)
Updates on white shrimp farming in Luzon-Vic Estilo (UP Aquaculture Society)
Sharing field experiences on white shrimp farming (William Kramer, Hoc-Po Feeds; Gina Regalado, Intaq Feeds; and Audie Lim, Santeh Feeds)
The Shrimp Program for the WAS Meeting
To download a PDF file of the shrimp and prawn sessions at the World Aquaculture Society meeting in Korea (May 19-23, 2008), click here. It’s a small file that downloads quickly.
Information: John Cooksey, World Aquaculture Conference Management, P.O. Box 2302, Valley Center, CA 92082 USA (phone 760-751-5005, fax 760-751-5003, email email@example.com, webpage http://www.was.org).
Source: Email from John Cooksey to Shrimp News International on April 29, 2008.
Shrimp Farmer Shot and Decapitated
Suspected separatists shot dead and then decapitated the manager of a shrimp farm in the Muslim area of southern Thailand, where almost 3,000 people have died in escalating violence since early 2004. On the night of April 16, 2008, Suphawit Mitjan, 26, was ambushed while driving to his shrimp farm in Nong Chik, Pattani, 730 kilometers south of Bangkok. A Buddhist, he was first shot with a M-16 rifle and then decapitated with an axe, said Colonel Akkara Thiproj, spokesman for the southern region command. Suphawit was the 37th decapitation recorded in the deep South—Narathiwat, Pattani and Yala provinces—since the region’s long simmering separatist struggle took a turn for the worse four years ago, said Akkara. When authorities inspected the scene of Suphawit’s death, a booby-trap exploded that injured two volunteer militiamen.
Source: M&G News. Asia-PacificNews/Separatists decapitate Thai shrimp farmer. April 17, 2008.
Arizona State University, Award Winning TV Feature, Shrimp Farm
On April 14, 2008, in Indianapolis, Indiana, the Society of Professional Journalists announced its Region 11 Mark of Excellence Award winners for the 2007 calendar year. Collegiate journalists submitted more than 3,400 entries in 39 categories across SPJ’s 12 regions. First-place regional winners advance to the national round of judging, currently taking place, and national winners will be announced in mid-May. Shrimp Farm a television feature won the following awards:
Television Feature: First Place, Anne McCloy, Arizona State University, for Shrimp Farm.
Television Feature Photography: Second Place, Anne McCloy, Arizona State University, for Shrimp Farm.
[Note: Anne McCloy is at Arizona State University in Tempe. Dr. Donald Lightner, the famed shrimp virologist, is at the University of Arizona in Tucson.]
Information: Anne McCloy (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Information: Society of Professional Journalists. Heather Porter, Programs Coordinator (317-927-8000, extension 204) Beth King, Communications Manager (317-927-8000, extension 211).
Source: Society of Professional Journalists (“Improving and Protecting Journalism Since 1909”). SPJ News/SPJ Announces 2007 Region 11 Mark of Excellence Award Winners. April 14, 2008.
California—Wants Crustacean Specimens
This exchange took place on Crust-L, a mailing list for crustacean scientists:
Joel Martin (email@example.com): Over the next year or so, the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County will be renovating its Marine Hall. There is a possibility that I can get some more (and better) crustacean specimens on display, and I’d like to take advantage of this opportunity.
We have some funds for purchasing specimens for the Marine Hall, but I am in need of someone (an individual or company) who has the experience and the skills needed to successfully dry and mount specimens for museum display purposes. The Museum feels that the dried specimens are more visually appealing to visitors than animals in jars of alcohol, and at least to some extent, I agree.
For example, I will be able to purchase large specimens of Pseudocarcinus gigas, Ranina ranina, Macrocheira, Homarus and other large and showy specimens. But I am not aware of a person or company that is capable of drying and mounting such specimens for museum display (or educational) purposes.
I would be very grateful if anyone could put me in touch with a person or company who understands this “lost art” and is available for hire.
Information: Joel W. (Jody) Martin, Chief of the Division of Invertebrate Studies, Curator of Crustacea Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 900 Exposition Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90007 USA (phone 213-763-3440, fax 213-746-2999).
Mary Wicksten (firstname.lastname@example.org): You need to ask some of the local taxidermists who mount trophy fishes. The big Maiopsis specimen at USC was prepared by a taxidermist in San Pedro. Some of the local lobster divers regularly have their “bull” lobsters mounted and prepared by taxidermists.
John Christy (email@example.com): Slightly off topic but perhaps useful.
Many years ago, Adrian Wenner gave me a recipe for a “crab soak” that allows one to preserve crabs in a flexible state with reasonable color retention, which usually is a major problem. I used it once, about 25 years ago, on a rather dully colored, large, free living pinnixid crab and found that it works well (I misplaced the specimen however so I can’t show you). The “soak” is equal parts glycerol, ethanol and acetone. The animal is killed first (I use cold), fixed (I used formalin) for a day or two, then put in this solution for another day or two, time depending on size. The result is a flexible specimen that can be kept in air and does not rot or otherwise change in appearance. As it remains semi-moist with glycerol, it will collect dust like crazy, so it should be in a case or covered.
If and when you find a company to do the work you need done, you may mention this method of preservation to them if they do not know about it already. Color preservation will be the snag for “dry mounts” and this soak seemed to work—but again the animal was rather dull.
Gerald Legg (firstname.lastname@example.org): We prepare largish crustacea, for example, Homarus gammarus, the European lobster, as follows:
Inject formal acetic alcohol into the whole animal underwater (not scuba diving obviously!) in a bowl, sink or whatever. This prevents the preservative from bleaching or staining the carapace. Dab dry manually, then dry in a drying cupboard or drying oven. This gives excellent color preservation for starfish and works on crustaceans. [Editor’s Note: Contact Gerald Legg before attempting this technique. I lost the original email and had to make some guesses here. You can contact him at: Dr. Gerald Legg, Keeper of Natural Sciences, Booth Museum of Natural History, 194, Dyke Road, Brighton, BN1 5AA United Kingdom.]
Tom (email@example.com): When I went to graduate school, I prepared some specimens for a wall mount case. I just took the fresh crabs and injected formaldehyde into them with a syringe. After all the tissue was preserved and the crabs were allowed to dry, I painted them with polyurethane. Since they are not exposed to alcohol, some of the color on the outside of the crabs and lobsters was preserved and the University likely has the display case to this day. The polyurethane gives them the wet look.
Joseph Goy (firstname.lastname@example.org): A fresh molt carefully spread out, air dried and sprayed with painter’s shellac works really well on stenopidids and carideans.
Sources: 1. The Crust-L mailing list (To subscribe, send an email to LISTPROC@VIMS.EDU. In the body of the email, put SUBSCRIBE CRUST-L). Subject: Crustacean Specimen Preparation for Display. April 16–21, 2008. 2. Bob Rosenberry, Shrimp News International, April 29, 2008.
A company in southern Florida has two job openings, one for a shrimp broodstock production manager ($40,000 to $60,000) and one for a shrimp reproduction/maturation department manager ($40,000 to $60,000). The closing date on both jobs is July 31, 2008. Information: Send resume and cover letter to email@example.com.
Source: AquaNic (The Aquaculture Network Information Center, a gateway to the world’s electronic aquaculture resources). Jobs Directory in cooperation with the WAS Employment Service. Search jobs. Shrimp Broodstock Production Manager and Shrimp Reproduction/Maturation Department Manager. Posted: May 2, 2008.
Kentucky—Who’s Extracting Chitin from Shrimp Shells?
Neal (firstname.lastname@example.org): Is anyone producing chitin from wasted shrimp shells? What uses are being made of the chitin you produce?
Source: The Shrimp List (a mailing list for shrimp farmers). Chitin. April 20, 2008.
Nevada—Ganix Bio-Technologies, Inc.
Ganix Bio-Technologies, Inc., plans to build an indoor shrimp farm in Pahrump, Nevada. Thanks to its location near Las Vegas, Ganix has some unique marketing advantages. Las Vegas is the largest shrimp-consuming city in the country, devouring a whopping 60,000 pounds a day, which translates into annual sales of $142 million. Beau Dempsey, senior scientist and director of operations, said: “We’ll produce 750,000 pounds a year at our facility, so we’re not even scratching that market. There’s no deveining or beheading at the facility because...the high-end customer wants...a whole, fresh shrimp. It’s pretty safe to say that you’ve never eaten fresh shrimp in Vegas. If you did, you probably paid $20 to $30 a pound for it.”
Ganix’s prototype farm in North Dakota covers 52,400 square feet and has 72 tanks, each holding about 2,000 gallons of water. Workers wear biological suits and practice strict biosecurity procedures. The air is sterilized with ultraviolet rays on its way in and out of the building. The facility is 70 percent efficient when it comes to recouping cool or heated air, giving it a constant temperature of about 85 degrees.
Dempsey estimates the facility will employ about 22 people who can be trained and do not necessarily have to be experienced. Although a groundbreaking date hasn’t been set, Dempsey said he expects the construction period to last seven to eight months.
Information: Beau Dempsey, Senior Scientist and Director of Operations, Ganix Bio-Technologies, LLC, 5275 South Durango Drive, Las Vegas, NV 89113 USA (phone 702-304-2649, fax 702-384-2650, email@example.com, webpage http://www.ganix.net).
Source: Pahrump Valley Times. Seeking perfect shrimp larvae...in Pahrump? Christina Eichelkraut. April 18, 2008.
Washington DC—FDA to Open Offices in China, India and Central America
The USA Food and Drug Administration plans to open an office in Beijing, China, in May 2008. FDA’s Health and Human Services Secretary Mike Leavitt said, “Our purpose is not just inspection, it is building capacity and maintaining relationships between regulators.”
Leavitt said the USA also expects to build a presence in India and Central America.
Uni-President (Vietnam), Co., Ltd.
Taiwan-based, Uni-President, Co., Ltd., is a leading shrimp feed producer in Vietnam. Now it’s getting into the hatchery business. In mid-2007, it built a new hatchery with biosecure broodstock, larvae and nursery areas for the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and the western white shrimp (P. vannamei). It also equipped its laboratory with PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and other equipment to monitor diseases. Cheng Chuang, vice president of Uni-President Vietnam, said, “Our plan is to play a larger role in the industry in Vietnam. The estimated countrywide demand is 35 billion postlarvae, valued at $100 million. ...We will start the specific pathogen resistant (SPR) vannamei postlarvae business in March 2008.” After that business gets going, Uni-President will begin producing specific pathogen free (SPF) monodon PLs from domesticated monodon broodstock.
Source: Aqua Culture AsiaPacific (Editor/Publisher, Zuridah Merican, email firstname.lastname@example.org). Explore the cradle of aquaculture in Taiwan/Trade show. Volume 4, Number 2, Page 36, March/April 2008.
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