The Shrimp Farming Program for the
World Aquaculture Society
Meeting in Orlando, Florida
(February 10-12, 2008)
1:30—Intensive Grow-Out of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in Greenhouse-Enclosed Raceways with Limited Water Discharge (Tzachi M. Samocha, Jong Sheek Kim, Timothy C. Morris and Susmita Patnaik)
1:45— Commercial-Scale Production of Pacific White Shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei in a Biosecure, Super-Intensive, Recirculating Aquaculture System (Clete Otoshi, Scott Naguwa, Frank Falesch, Elizabeth McCrorey, Terrill Hanson and Shaun Moss)
2:00—Shrimp Production in a Zero-Discharge Photoautotrophic-Chemoautotrophic Partitioned Aquaculture System (David Brune, K. Kirk and C. Henrich)
2:15—Present Status of Heterotrophic Super-Intensive Shrimp Culture in Southern Brazil (Wilson Wasielesky, Eduardo Ballester, Mauricio Emerenciano, Dariano Krummenauer, Geraldo Foes, Gustavo Vita, Paulo Abreu, Clarice Odebrecht, Leandro Godoy, Paula Maicá, Maude Borba, Sabrina Suita and Charles Froes)
2:30—Evaluation of Stocking Density and Light Intenisty on the Growth and Survival of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Reared in Zero Exchange Systems (Russell Neal, Brian M. Boudreau, Shawn D. Coyle and James H. Tidwell)
2:45—Performance of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Raised in Static Heterotrophic Tank Systems Exposed to Different Light Sources and Intensities (David R. Wood, Russell S. Neal, Brian M. Boudreau, Shawn D. Coyle and James H. Tidwell)
3:30— Pond-To-Pond Variability in Post-Larval Shrimp Litopenaeus Vannamei Survival and Growth in Inland Low Salinity Waters of West Alabama (Luke A. Roy, D. Allen Davis, Travis W. Brown and Greg Whitis)
3:45—Commercial Experiences on Production of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Using Feed with Low Fish Meal Inclusion (Herbert E. Quintero and D. Allen Davis )
4:00— Growth of Litopanaeus vannamei on Soils From Alabama Inland Low-Salinity Shrimp Farms in a Closed Tank System (Harvey J. Pine, Luke A. Roy, D. Allen Davis and Claude E. Boyd)
4:15—Pond Production of Live Bait Shrimp Penaeuss setiferus and Farfantepenaeus duorarum in Alabama (Daranee Sookying, Justin Markey, Herbert E. Quintero, Daniel Rodriguez, D. Allen Davis, Tzachi M. Samocha and Craig L. Browdy)
4.30—U.S. Shrimp Farming: How to Compete! (Russ Allen)
8:30—A Review of Current Feed Ingredients Used in the Manufacture of Commercial Reduced-Fish Meal Shrimp Feeds (Joe M. Fox and Addison L. Lawrence )
9:00— Replacement of Solvent Extracted Soybean Meal by Soy Protein Concentrate for Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Daranee Sookying, Justin C. Markey and D. Allen Davis)
9:15—Nutritional Evaluation of Various Rayfish Liver Oils for Penaeid Shrimp (Martin Perez-Velazquez, Mayra L. González-Félix, Erasmo Valenzuela-Escalante and Gerardo Navarro-García )
9:30—Response of the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to Varying Levels of Arachidonic Acid in Plant-Based Diets Offered to Juvenile Shrimp Reared in Outdoor Tanks (Timothy C. Morris, Tzachi M. Samocha, Allen D. Davis, Robert A. Bullis, Susmita Patnaik and Jong Sheek Kim )
9:45—Dietary Requirement for Cholesterol and the Potential Use of Phytosterol as a Cholesterol Substitute in Plant-Based Diets for Litopenaeus vannamei Cultured in Outdoor Tanks (Timothy C. Morris, Tzachi M. Samocha, Allen D. Davis, Robert A. Bullis, Susmita Patnaik and Jong Sheek Kim)
10:30—Antioxidant Activity of Dietary Carotenoids in Different Tissues of Shrimp Pleoticus muelleri (Crustacea, Penaeoidea) (Jorge L. Fenucci, Ana C. Díaz, Analia V. Fernádez Gimenez, Susana M. Velurtas and Sara N. Mendiara )
10:45—Evaluation of Fish Meal Substitution in Practical Diets for Litopenaeus vannamei Reared in Low Salinity Waters of West Alabama (Luke A. Roy, D. Allen Davis, Travis W. Brown, Darance Sookying, Greg Whitis and André M. Bordinhon)
11:00— Growth Evaluation of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Fed Practical Diets Containing Plant Protein Sources (Daranee Sookying, Justin C. Markey and D. Allen Davis )
11:15—Pond Production of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Fed High Levels of Soybean Meal in Various Combinations (Daranee Sookying, Justin C. Markey and D. Allen Davis )
11:30—Prebiotic Fructooligosaccharides Influence on Gastrointestinal Microflora and Immunity of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Gary Burr, Peng Li, Michael Hume, Delbert Gatlin III, Susmita Patnaik, Frank Castille and Addison Lawrence)
11:45—Contribution of Natural Productivity of Two Microbial Floc Systems to Growth Performance and Feed Conversion Rate (FCR) of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Fed Diets with Variable Composition (Jesus A. Venero, Brad McAbee, Beth Thomas, Craig L. Browdy and John W. Leffler )
12:00—The Effect of Size-Class and Fasting on Weight, Dry Matter, Ash and Selected Mineral Whole-Body Composition of Litopenaeus vannamei (Joe M. Fox, Ashlie D. Simmons, Anthony J. Siccardi III and Addison L. Lawrence)
12:15—Apparent Digestibility of Selected Minerals by Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Fed Diets Supplemented with Organic and Inorganic Sources of Minerals (Diana Lopez, Joe M. Fox, Scott J. Walker and Addison L. Lawrence)
12:30—Apparent Amino Acid Digestibility of Common Feed Ingredients by Juvenile Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Under Normal and Low-Salinity Conditions (Leslie Adams, Joe M. Fox, Addison L. Lawrence and Anthony J. Siccardi III )
Shrimp Culture and Shrimp Health
8:30—Integrating Tilapia Effluent with Shrimp Culture to Enhance Aquacultural Sustainability (David Kuhn, Gregory Boardman, Steven Craig, Ewen McLean and George Flick)
8:45—Toxicological Effects of Ammonia and Nitrite on Pacific White Leg Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Survival and Growth at Different Salinities (Dominic Schuler and Gregory D. Boardman)
9:00— Procedures for Evaluating Potential Saline Groundwater Sites for Inland Shrimp Farm Production in Western Alabama (Chris A. Boyd, Philip L. Chaney, Claude E. Boyd and David B. Rouse )
9:15— Discharge Standards For Eco-Label Certification of Shrimp Farms (Claude E. Boyd )
9:30—Influence of Microbial Community Dynamics on the Production of Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in Zero Exchange Biofloc Systems (Andrew J. Ray, Andrew Shuler, Brad McAbee, Gloria Seaborn, Susan Wilde, Craig L. Browdy and John W. Leffler )
9:45—Assessing Human Health Benefits and Risks Associated with Consumption of Farmed and Wild Shrimp (Craig L. Browdy, Gloria Seaborn, Ed Wirth and John W. Leffler )
11:00—Continuous Monitoring of Dissolved Oxygen in Super-Intensive Shrimp Grow-Out in Greenhouse-Enclosed Raceways Using a Software Integrated Monitoring System (Timothy C. Morris, Tzachi M. Samocha and Darrin Honious )
11:15—Molecular Characterization of Vibrio Species obtained from a Commercial Shrimp Hatchery in the U.S. (Shelly Gebert, Doug Ernst, Christopher Kromm and Thomas Rehberger )
11:30—The Contribution of Epiphytes to Bacterial and Fungal Infection in Penaeus vannamei Broodstock (Rolland Laramore and Rolland Laramore )
11:45—Development of Viral Pathogen Free Broodstock Populations of the Atlantic Pink Farfantepenaeus duorarum and the Atlantic White Shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus (Tzachi M. Samocha, Ryan L. Gandy, Timothy C. Morris, Susmita Patnaik, Jong Sheek Kim, Donald A. Davis, Jacob R. Richardson and Craig L. Browdy)
12:00—Development Specific Pathogen Free Litopenaeus setiferus Seed Supplies for Commercilization of Bait Shrimp Production in the Southeastern U.S. (Al Stokes, Jacob Richardson, Jesus Venero and Craig L. Browdy)
Information: John Cooksey, World Aquaculture Conference Management, P.O. Box 2302, Valley Center, CA 92082 USA (phone 760-751-5005, fax 760-751-5003, email email@example.com, webpage https://www.was.org/meetings/ConferenceInfo.asp?MeetingCode=AA2008).
Schedule To Be Announced
Source: John Cooksey, World Aquaculture Conference Management. January 8, 2008.
Melony Sellars, a scientist with the federal government’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), has won an $8,800 Bureau of Rural Sciences award for her research into the benefits of triploid giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).
One minute after a shrimp spawns, Sellars makes a crucial change to the water environment that stops the usual process of reproduction, known as meiosis, from occurring, so that two sets of maternal chromosomes are retained instead of one. Her technique, which has a 100 percent success rate and theoretically provides maximum gene flow, was developed as part of her Ph.D. thesis, funded by CSIRO’s Food Futures Flagship.
Sellars will compare the performance of normal diploid shrimp (two sets of chromosomes, one from each parent) and triploid shrimp. She will also compare her triploids with shrimp bred with an extra chromosome through an older, more widely used method, where meiosis is stopped eight minutes after spawning. When meiosis is stopped at the one-minute mark, the shrimp embryo retains both sets of its mother’s chromosomes, providing more genetic diversity than when meiosis is stopped at eight minutes.
Sellars will use some of the funds to test the following hypothesis: Shrimp bred using the new method will perform better across different environments and cope more easily with change. “An animal with a more diverse set of genes should be better able to perform when it experiences a change in temperature, or a change in salinity, or a change of pathogens in the environment,” she says. She thinks the triploids will grow faster and bigger than the control group because triploids are always female, and female shrimp can grow up to 30 percent larger than male shrimp in the same timeframe. Triploid shrimp are also sterile.
Information: Melony Sellars (phone 07-3826-7369, email firstname.lastname@example.org).
Source: FISH (Fisheries Research and Development Corporation News, http://www.frdc.com.au). Mum’s the Word for Bigger Prawns. Volume 15, Number 4, Page 25, December 2007.
Jobs—Penaeus monodon Hatchery Technicians
Job Description: For trainees who will be considered for permanent hatchery positions.
Company: Baishali Hatchery Limited (one of the leading shrimp hatcheries in Bangladesh).
Salary: $200 [a month?].
Closing Date: January 24, 2008.
Qualifications: Bangladeshi nationals only. Recent graduates in fisheries and marine aquaculture. Those with computer expertise will be given preference. Job requires trainees to be onsite for nine continuous months. Trainees should be able to speak English, source wild broodstock and lift a minimum of 22 kilograms (48.5 pounds).
Information: Managing Director, Baishali Hatchery Limited, North Nidania, P.O. Inani, Ukhiya, Cox’s Bazar (phone 01720062850 and 01819688654, email email@example.com).
Source: AquaNic (The Aquaculture Network Information Center, a gateway to the world’s electronic aquaculture resources, http://aquanic.org/index.htm). Jobs Directory (http://www.aquanic.org/Text/job_serv.htm) In cooperation with the WAS Employment Service. Search jobs (http://aquanic.org/jobs/search.asp). P. Monodon hatchery technicians (http://aquanic.org/jobs/jobinfo.asp?jobid=2679). Posted December 25, 2007.
Eric De Muylder’s Webpage
Aquaculture consultant Eric De Muylder specializes in aquatic feeds and bio-floc shrimp farming. Through his company, CreveTec, he can assist you with the sourcing of premixes, protein meals, fish hydrolysates, animal by-products, silkworm pupae meal, squid meal and krill meal. Here are a couple of notes from De Muylder’s webpage:
With Disha Novia Corporation, CreveTec has developed Bombyx proteins, a raw material for aquafeeds based on silkworm pupae.
De Muylder has posted two of his published papers to his site: (1) A Different Approach to Shrimp Feeding and Nutrition and (2) The Influence of Macro-Minerals in the Diet on Growth of Litopenaeus vannamei at Low Salinity.
Information: Eric De Muylder, CreveTec bvba, Nieuwenbos 43, 1702 Groot-Bijgaarden, Belgium (phone 32-473-721-004, email firstname.lastname@example.org).
Source: CreveTec Website (http://www.crevetec.com) site visit on December 29, 2007.
Crab Culture Research
The November 15, 2007, issue of the Electronical Larviculture Newsletter contains 17 scientific abstracts on crab culture, 15 of them on the mud crab, Scylla serrata.
Source: Electronical Larviculture Newsletter (http://www.rug.ac.be/aquaculture). Editor Gilbert Van Stappen (email@example.com). Subscriptions Magda Vanhooren (firstname.lastname@example.org). Questions Alex Pieters (email@example.com). Issue 277, November 15, 2007.
New Safety Regulations
On December 11, 2007, after months of product recalls and fears over contaminated food imports, the USA and Chinese governments reached a food and drug safety agreement that will give American inspectors access to Chinese processing plants while assuring Chinese exporters continued access to the USA market.
A summary of the agreement provided by the USA Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) says the deal addresses problems with farmed shrimp.
Under the new agreement, Chinese exporters will register with the Chinese government and agree to annual inspections by China’s office of General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine. HHS said in a statement that the “new certification requirement will help ensure products exported from China to the United States meet our standards.” Yet, enforcing that standard will largely be up to the Chinese. The agreement also calls for the USA and China to notify each other within 48 hours of learning of “the emergence of significant risk to public health in relation to product safety, recalls and other situations.”
The agreement doesn’t guarantee the continued presence of FDA or other USA inspectors in processing plants, just a pledge from the Chinese to “facilitate” access to the plants.
Both sides pledged to establish a working group that will develop benchmarks to regulate products.
Source: Seafood.com (an online, subscription-based, fisheries news service). Food safety pact with China so far limited to a few products, includes shrimp and catfish (Stephen J. Hedges, Chicago Tribune Company). Ken Coons (phone 781-861-1441, email firstname.lastname@example.org). Editor and Publisher, John Sackton (phone 781-861-1441, email email@example.com). December 12, 2007.
Mitsui Buys into Chinese Shrimp Farming Company
In April 2007, Mitsui & Co., a major Japanese trading house, acquired 37% of Allied Pacific, a Hong Kong-based firm engaging in shrimp farming and shrimp processing in China.
In June 2000, Allied Pacific started a firm to produce value-added processed shrimp products, and, in November 2001, it set up another firm to process shrimp in the city of Zhanjiang. In August 2003, it started a shrimp farm in Zhanjiang.
By June 2008, Allied Pacific expects to have its feed mills, shrimp farms and processing plants integrated and operating on a continuous basis. Currently, its processing plant secures shrimp from its own ponds, leased ponds and contract farmers. In 2008, it intends to double the production of shrimp in its own ponds from 2,500 tons to 5,000 tons.
In 2008, Allied Pacific expects to process 11,000 tons of shrimp, including breaded and IQF products. Thirty percent of its production will be shipped to the United States, thirty percent to Japan, and the remaining forty percent will go to Europe and elsewhere, all of it carrying the company’s brand name, “Pacific Premium”.
In July 2007, Mitsui also established a shrimp farm and feed mill on Hainan Island, a large island off the southern coast of China.
Source: Seafood.com (an online, subscription-based, fisheries news service). Mitsui participating in Allied Pacific’s expansion of shrimp production in China. Ken Coons (phone 781-861-1441, email firstname.lastname@example.org). Editor and Publisher, John Sackton (phone 781-861-1441, email email@example.com). December 31, 2007.
Wants Help Starting a Shrimp Farm
Ahmad El-Kheir (firstname.lastname@example.org): I want to establish a five-hectare shrimp farm in Lebanon and need information on how to begin. I also need information on sources of shrimp feed and shrimp seedstock.
Source: Email to Shrimp News International from Ahmad Fayez El-Kheir (email@example.com) on December 26, 2007.
International Shrimp Culture Symposium and Trade Show
The Ninth International Shrimp Culture Symposium and Trade Show will be held in Los Mochis, Sonora, Mexico, on May 21-24, 2008. Previous symposiums in this series have been held in Nicaragua (2003 and 2007), Belize (2004) and Panama (1998, 1999, 2000, 2002 and 2005). Manuel Alzamora, Jr., president of Grupo de Ferias, Congresos y Eventos, S.A, has skillfully managed all of them. He says the May symposium will have the support of the shrimp farming industry, the Government of Mexico and company sponsors. Speakers are invited on production, nutrition, fertilization, genetics, pathology, whitespot, biosecurity, the environment, regulations, organic farming, new markets and diseases.
Information: To get on the mailing list for all communications on the symposium and for information on the trade show, contact Manuel Alzamora, Jr., in Panama (phone 507-236-7845, cell 507-66126919, fax 507-236-6652, email firstname.lastname@example.org, webpage http://www.gfcepanama.com).
Source: Emails to Shrimp News International from Manuel Alzamora, Jr., on December 29, 2007, and January 8, 2008.
Using Shrimp Shells to Fertilize Potatoes
Potato farmers in northern Norway have found that the wastes from shrimp processing plants make a first-class, environmentally friendly fertilizer. “In the old days, people used fish waste as fertilizer and that’s where we got the idea,” says Halgeir Jakobsen. Potato farmers are collaborating with Stella Polaris, a shrimp processor that has large quantities of excess shrimp shells.
Chitin, a compound in shrimp shells, has a documented effect on plant health and can hamper fungus growth and activate natural defense mechanisms in plants. In Bergen, Fiskeriforskning, the Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Ltd. (http://en.fiskforsk.norut.no), is developing a technique for producing chitinous pellets from shrimp waste and process water.
Source: FishUpdate.com. From shrimp shells to ecological fertilizer (http://www.fishupdate.com/news/fullstory.php/aid/9528/From_shrimp_shells_to_ecological_fertiliser.html). December 17, 2008.
Wanted japonicus or monodon
This exchange took place on the Shrimp List:
Mark Rigby (email@example.com): Does anyone know of someone in Europe producing Penaeus japonicus or P. monodon postlarvae? After achieving some very pleasing results with vannamei in our closed systems we are looking forward to testing some higher value species.
Matthew (firstname.lastname@example.org). There is a hatchery on Cyprus that produces seasonal batches of japonicus postlarvae, but japonicus is no good for intensive culture. Unlike vannamei, which can be stocked at 250 animals per square meter, japonicus doesn’t use the water column very well, and they fight when stocked at high densities. They also have very different feeding requirements.
Mark Rigby (email@example.com): If anyone has contact information on the hatchery in Cyprus, please forward it. Yes, obviously, we won’t be doing anything like the 500/m2 (10 Kg at 20g) that our vannamei get to, and yes japonicus and monodon need sand, are more aggressive, need higher protein feed, and take longer to reach market size, but at such a high price one doesn’t need to achieve such high densities.
Patrick Wood (firstname.lastname@example.org): You could try the Pescanova hatchery near Cadiz, Spain. Their farms sell live japonicus in Europe and export to Japan. The hatchery is AcuiNova Andalucia (phone +34 956 487 252).
Fernando Castro (email@example.com): The season is over for japonicus postlarvae production in Europe. It will start again in March 2008. You can contact Steven Dolarakis (firstname.lastname@example.org) in northeastern Greece. In 2004, I shipped japonicus postlarvae to Germany, Malta and other countries from that hatchery. In Cypress, they are culturing indicus, an interesting species for intensive culture.
Source: The Shrimp List. Subject: [shrimp] Japonicus PLs. December 21 and 22, 2007.
Arizona—Why Do Shrimp Farming Research in the Desert?
Colin Kaltenbach, dean of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at the University of Arizona, has submitted a letter to The Arizona Daily Star that explains why the desert of Arizona makes and ideal location for a shrimp research facility. Here are some excerpts from Kaltenbach’s letter:
“The Sonoran Desert of Arizona might seem like an unlikely spot for shrimp farming. Why then is the federal government spending research dollars here to support it? The answer is to protect our health and create an environmentally sustainable domestic industry producing protein-rich, low-fat domestic shrimp.”
“The University of Arizona, together with partners in coastal states and the respected Oceanic Institute, has led the development of a robust domestic shrimp-farming industry by conducting critical research focused on improving diagnostic methods and tools to keep this popular seafood product free of disease.”
“By continuing nationwide disease surveillance efforts and conducting international diagnostic validation studies—work that must be done in an environment free from potential contamination, like the Sonoran Desert—the UA has helped ensure the safety and wholesomeness of the nation’s seafood supply.”
“Under the leadership of UA professor Donald V. Lightner, the world’s best-known and most respected shrimp pathologist, this research group quickly discovered that disease research conducted in shrimp ponds in coastal areas was jeopardized by potential contamination from seabirds ingesting wild, sometimes contaminated fish and shrimp and spreading that contamination to ponds containing farm-raised shrimp.”
“The answer was to isolate the research ponds from such potential contamination and shrimp farming and research in the desert was born. This was made possible by technology developed by Lightner and other scientists affiliated with the U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Consortium.”
“So with apologies to shrimp connoisseur Forrest Gump, whether you prefer your shrimp broiled, fried or breaded or in gumbo, fajitas or ceviche, you certainly deserve assurance that it is safe to eat and that it is raised in an environmentally sound way.”
Source: The Arizona Daily Star. Opinion—Using federal money to research desert shrimping is worthwhile (http://www.azstarnet.com/allheadlines/219825). Colin Kaltenbach (email@example.com). January 10, 2008.
Florida—The Half-Wit Who Works About 18 Hours Every Day
Gintautas Stasys Zavadzkas Leon (firstname.lastname@example.org): The Shrimp List has been rather quiet lately...so:
A man owns a small shrimp farm in central Florida.
The Florida State Wage and Hour Department heard that he was not paying proper wages to his help and sent an agent out to investigate.
“I need a complete list of your employees and how much you pay each of them,” demanded the agent.
“Well,” replied the farmer, “there’s the farm hand who’s been with me for three years. I pay him $400 a week, plus I give him free room and board.”
“Then there’s the cook. She has been here for 18 months, and I pay her $250 per week, plus I give her free room and board.”
“Finally, there’s the half-wit who works about 18 hours every day and does about 90% of all the work around here. He makes about $50 per week, pays his own room and board, and I buy him a bottle of Vodka every Saturday night. He also gets to sleep with my wife occasionally.”
“That’s the guy I want to talk to—the half-wit,” says the agent.
“That would be me,” replied the farmer.
Source: The Shrimp List (a mailing list for shrimp farmers, “email@example.com”). Subject: [shrimp] The reality. From: Gintautas Stasys Zavadzkas Leon. January 4, 2008.
Hawaii—Dollar Value of Shrimp Broodstock Sales
Hawaii is a global leader in SPF shrimp broodstock production. From 2004 to 2006, broodstock sales dropped slightly, from $4,677,000 to $4,259,000.
Source: Hawaii Aquaculture News. Editor, Jim Szyper (phone 808-938-4872, email firstname.lastname@example.org). Aquaculture Down 25% From 2005 to 2006, What Happened? John Corbin. Volume 1, Number 2, Page 3, December 2007.
Hawaii—Oceanic Institute, Record Shrimp Production
Researchers at the Oceanic Institute in Waimanalo, Hawaii, have developed a biosecure, recirculating system for the super-intensive production of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei. Although encouraging results have been achieved in research-sized units of 75 m2 or less, uncertainty remained over scale-up issues.
In 2006, Oceanic Institute researchers modified a 337m2 outdoor pond into a biosecure, recirculating system for a commercial-scale demonstration trial of its technology. In early 2007, the system was stocked with 279,131 juvenile shrimp from the Institute’s specific pathogen-free growth line. The stocking density was 828 shrimp/m2, the highest ever attempted at the facility. Mean water depth throughout the trial was 1.6 meters.
Management of ammonia and nitrite was accomplished by promoting the growth of nitrifying bacteria on particles suspended in the water column. In addition, abundant photoautotrophs and heterotrophs contributed to the removal of inorganic nitrogenous metabolites.
Classic ammonia and nitrite acclimation spikes were observed during the early part of the trial, when ammonia reached a maximum concentration of 6.0 mg/l, followed by a rapid increase in nitrite concentration to 10.6 mg/1. Ammonia and nitrite concentrations decreased rapidly as the microbial community became more established.
After the fourth week, ammonia and nitrite concentrations stabilized and were low throughout the remainder of the trial. Mean temperature, pH, and dissolved-oxygen concentration were 29.2°C (25.4 to 32.7°C), 6.9 (6.1 to 8.6), and 6.1 mg/l (1.5 to 11.5 mg/1), respectively. On average, only 2.1 % of the total water volume was exchanged daily, and only 402 liters of water were used to produce a kilogram of shrimp.
Shrimp growth rate was variable throughout the trial. Mean growth for the first five weeks was 0.8 grams a week. This low growth likely resulted from the small shrimp size at stocking (0.5-gram) and high nitrite concentrations during the early portion of the trial. Once nitrite levels stabilized, shrimp exhibited mean growth of 2.2 grams a week over the next six weeks. Overall growth was 1.5 grams a week, while the feed conversion ratio was about 1.6. Production was 10.3 kg/m2, the highest ever achieved at Oceanic Institute on a square meter basis. That’s equivalent to over 100,000 kilograms per hectare!
This, the first commercial-scale, super-intensive growout trial conducted at Oceanic Institute, demonstrated there were no significant scale-up issues which negatively impacted shrimp performance or system management. With regard to product quality, physical damage and scarring of the shrimp were not observed at harvest, despite harvesting the shrimp at a density of 562 shrimp a square meter. After harvest, 3,462 kilograms of shrimp were iced and sold fresh to local distributors or donated to local charities.
The estimated production cost of shrimp from a hypothetical farm using production strategies and results from this trial was $3.66 a kilogram ($1.66 a pound). This represented a dramatic decrease in production cost compared to previous trials. Importantly, opportunities exist to further reduce these costs through selective breeding, improved feed formulations, feed management strategies and automation technologies.
Source: The Global Aquaculture Advocate (http://www.gaalliance.org). Editor, Darryl Jory (email@example.com). Production/Commercial-Scale RAS Trial Yields Record Shrimp Production for Oceanic Institute. Clete A. Otoshi (firstname.lastname@example.org), Scott S. Naguwa, Frank C. Falesch and Shaun M. Moss, Ph.D. (Oceanic Institute, 41-202 Kalanianaole Highway, Waimanalo, Hawaii 96795 USA). Volume 10, Issue 6, Page 74, November/December 2007.
Iowa—Wanted: Help Getting Started in Shrimp Farming
We are extremely interested in creating our own shrimp farm and want to know how to get started. We are located in Wayland, Iowa, about 30 miles south of Iowa City. Please email information on how to get started.
Information: Cindy Hammen (email@example.com).
Washington State—Aquaculture Certification Council
Since it began operations in 2003, the Aquaculture Certification Council (ACC) has trained and accredited 113 independent auditor/inspectors from 30 countries to evaluate aquaculture facilities according to its Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) standards. The ACC website lists the depth of training, education and experience of its auditor/inspectors, all of whom have passed ACC’s intensive five-day training program.
During September and early October 2007, six new processing plants and two new shrimp farms were added to the list of BAP-certified facilities. Sandhya Aqua Exports Private became the first two-star group in India when it certified its processing plant and three shrimp farms in Andhra Pradesh.
On September 4, 2007, Pesca S.A. became the first shrimp processing plant in Guatemala to be BAP certified. Two large processing plants in China—FuguingYihua Aquatic Food Co., Ltd., and YangJiang City Yelin Hoitat Quick Frozen Seafood Co., Ltd.—have been certified, and P.T. Mega Marine Pride in Indonesia and Crystal Frozen Foods Co., Ltd., in Thailand have been certified.
To date, ACC has certified 74 processing plants, 45 farms and 20 hatcheries to Best Aquaculture Practices standards. Several applications for shrimp farm certification were recently received from Ecuador, Vietnam, Malaysia, and 14 other shrimp farms have recently registered for BAP certification.
Information: Bill More, Aquaculture Certification Council, Inc., 12815 72nd Avenue, Northeast, Kirkland, WA 98034 USA (phone 425-825-8634, fax 425-671-0146, email firstname.lastname@example.org, webpage http://www.aquaculturecertification.org).
Source: The Global Aquaculture Advocate (http://www.gaalliance.org). Editor, Darryl Jory (email@example.com). Best Aquaculture Practices News. ACC Inspectors, Auditors Reinforce BAP Credibility. ACC Inspects Farms, Plants in Asia, Guatemala. Volume 10, Issue 6, Page 33, November/December 2007.
In 2007, management agencies under the National Fisheries Quality Assurance Veterinary Directorate quarantined all shrimp broodstock imports before releasing them to hatcheries. It also tightened hygiene and veterinary standards at shrimp hatcheries and farms.
Source: Seafood.com (an online, subscription-based, fisheries news service). Vietnam Quarantines All Imported Breeding Shrimps. Editor and Publisher, John Sackton (phone 781-861-1441, email firstname.lastname@example.org). December 28, 2007.
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