March 23, 2007
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President-Elect of the World Aquaculture Society
Long Career in Shrimp Hatchery Management
Presentation on Shrimp Farming in Mexico
On February 5, 2007, the World Aquaculture Society (WAS) announced that Lorenzo Juárez, general manager of SyAqua Mexico (shrimp hatcheries and a nucleus breeding center) will be its next president, the first Latin American to hold that position. Founded in 1970, WAS is an international, nonprofit organization with over 3,000 members in 94 countries. It runs trade shows and conferences, publishes a scientific journal and a quarterly magazine, promotes communication and information exchange--and gets a lot of support from the global shrimp farming industry. Juárez, a Mexican, has been a member of the WAS since 1982 and a director since 2003.
From WAS Ballot: Here's some background information on Juárez that appeared on the WAS election ballot. Juárez obtained his B.S. from Monterrey Technical University, in Mexico, in 1980, and an M.S. in Aquaculture from Auburn University in 1982. After graduation, he worked at the Instituto Tecnologico de Monterrey in Sonora, Mexico, where he managed aquaculture research programs for shrimp and prawns. In 1985, he joined the National Institute of Fisheries, in Yucatan, Mexico, as a director of research, where he managed the finfish and shrimp programs. Next he joined Cultura Mar Caribe, a shrimp hatchery in the Dominican Republic that produced Penaeus vannamei and P. stylirostris seedstock, as production manager, and then spent 14 years with Sea Farms International, one of the largest shrimp farms in the world, as manager of hatchery operations in Florida and later as general manager for PL production in Florida, Honduras and Venezuela. During this time, he also acted as a professor of tropical mariculture at Florida Keys Community College and was visiting professor of aquaculture at the Universidad Marista in Merida, Yucatan. In 2003, he moved to Mazatlan, Mexico, as general manager of SyAqua, where he currently manages three shrimp hatcheries and a nucleus breeding center.
Presentation at "Aquaculture 2007"
At "Aquaculture 2007" (San Antonio, Texas, USA, February 26 to March 2, 2007), Juárez gave a presentation on the status of shrimp farming in Mexico. Here are some excerpts from that presentation:
In 2006, shrimp farms in Mexico produced 107,000 metric tons of whole animals, valued at an estimated $700 million. Shrimp farming has become a major industry in Mexico, and the growth over the last few years has been amazing. The number of farms is not a very good statistic because farms open and close, change hands, consolidate, get leased to third parties, so it's difficult get up-to-date information on their numbers. Nonetheless, the increase in the number of farms--from 489 to 695 in the last four years--gives you some indication of how rapidly the industry is growing. Just about all of the shrimp farms in Mexico are semi-intensive. We have a few intensive farms, but you could count them on one hand, and they're mostly small projects.
Growout Technology: In northwest Mexico, in the states of Nayarit, Sinaloa and Sonora, where most of the farmed shrimp is produced, we use three farming strategies. In the warmer areas, like southern Sinaloa and Nayarit, farmers produce two crops a year, using a 90 to 120 day growout period (March to June and July to October). They stock at relatively low densities, 8 to 15 postlarvae per square meter, and harvest a 12 to 15-gram animal.
Shrimp Farming in Mexico 2003 to 2006 Year Hectares Stocked MT Produced Tons/Hectare Farms PLs Stocked 2003 44,227 68,311 1,545 489 6,583,000,000 2004 53,271 79,321 1,489 558 8,312,000,000 2005 57,263 93,125 1,626 582 9,586,000,000 2006 59,763 107,244 1,794 695 9,159,000,000
In northern Sinaloa and southern Sonora, farmers stock 18 to 22 postlarvae per square meter and produce one crop a year, augmented with two partial harvests that capture 12, 14, and even 22-gram shrimp at the end of June and at the end of August. The remaining shrimp are allowed to grow to 26 to 30 grams and are harvested at the end of October.
In central Sonora, farmers use higher stocking densities, 25 to 30 postlarvae per square meter, and harvest one crop of large shrimp in November. Shrimp farms around Bahai Kino, where the most intensive of the semi-intensive shrimp aquaculture is done, harvest some 36-gram animals.
Species: In the early mid-1900s, the favored species in Mexico was the Pacific blue shrimp, Penaeus stylirostris, but in the late 1900s, it showed great susceptibility to what was probably a mutated strain of the Taura virus, and the industry quickly switched from blue shrimp to white shrimp, P. vannamei.
Hatcheries: Mexico hasn't used wild postlarvae since the early 1900s. For the last two years, 2005 and 2006, 39 hatcheries have produced 9 billion postlarvae a year. Despite the increases in pond production, the trend in postlarvae production has plateaued because farmers are stocking at lower densities. The hatcheries, which tend to be large, sophisticated and well managed, are located in the states of Sinaloa and Sonora, where most of the farming takes place. The top five hatcheries produce eighty-two percent of the PL supply. Right now the shrimp hatchery industry is facing a difficult period of competition and consolidation. Maricultura del Pacifico and SyAqua run large-scale genetic improvement programs.
Shrimp Hatcheries in Mexico in 2006 Hatchery Percent of Production PL Production Maricultura 23 2,073,969,471 Aquapacific 14 2,073,969,471 SyAqua Mexico 11 1,013,504,440 Acuacultura Mahr 7 639,154,911 Prolamar 6 520,511,696 Camaron Dorado 6 513,631,270 Genitech 5 417,248,160 Farallon 4 323,228,216 Larvas Genesis 4 319,418,673 Acuicultural Integral 3 266,818,000 Total of Top Ten 82 7,299,741,664 All Others 18 1,615,247,978 Grand Total 100 8,914,989,642
Broodstock and Viruses: Our broodstock shows very good growth and very good disease tolerance, especially when compared to wild animals. Most of our populations have the IHHN virus, but their offspring show very few symptoms of it, maybe a few runts here and there. Fortunately, our broodstock does show very good resistance to the Taura virus, which is prevalent in Mexico, but is no longer a serious threat to the industry. It's more of a management problem, the same thing with NHP, a bacterial disease. Of course, the whitespot virus lurks out there, and it's a killer.
A captive population of broodstock at the School of Marine Science in Guaymas, Sonora, does not have IHHN, and some of the commercial hatcheries have drawn on those stocks. In the Gulf state of Tamaulipas (bordering south Texas), there is a small shrimp farming industry that has access to IHHN-free seedstock from Texas and IHHN-infected seedstock from Mexico. Farmers report no difference between the two stocks during growout.
Information: John Cooksey, World Aquaculture Conference Management, P.O. Box 2302, Valley Center, CA 92082 USA (phone 760-751-5005, fax 760-751-5003, email email@example.com, webpage www.was.org).
Information: Lorenzo M. Juárez, SyAqua-Mexico, Ave. Camaron-Sabalo 310, Local 24, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico (email firstname.lastname@example.org).
Sources: 1. Panorama Acuícola (Editor, Salvador Meza García, photo credit, email email@example.com). Lorenzo Juárez, the first Latin American to be elected President of the World Aquaculture Society (http://www.panoramaacuicola.com/noticia.php?art_clave=3449). March 12, 2007. 2. World Aquaculture Online Ballot (http://www.was.org/ballot/onlineballot.asp?). WAS Election 2007/President-Elect. January 30, 2007. 3. Aquaculture 2007 (San Antonio, Texas, USA, February 26 to March 2, 2007). Latin American and Caribbean Aquaculture. Current Status of Shrimp Aquaculture in Mexico. Lorenzo Juárez. March 1, 2007.
Gold Coast Marine Aquaculture
Gold Coast Marine Aquaculture, a shrimp farm in southern Queensland that's been run by the Herbst family for 20 years, produces its own postlarvae from captive tiger shrimp broodstock (Penaeus monodon). With $2.36 million in expansion funds, it plans to increase annual production from 320 tons to 500 tons over the next two years by adding growout ponds, a 250-ton cold storage facility, and a snap [quick] freezer with a capacity of 6 tons of product cooled to -30 Celsius overnight. Currently, Gold Coast markets its tiger shrimp in Japan, but has plans to expand into the USA and elsewhere.
Source: FisheNews (an email supplement to Austasia Aquaculture magazine, www.austasiaaquaculture.com.au). Editor, Tim Walker (firstname.lastname@example.org). Gold Coast Marine Aquaculture. March 8, 2007.
Coral Sea Farms
Coral Sea Farms Australia, Pty., Ltd., got started in 2002, harvested its first crop of around 200 tons of shrimp in February 2004, and is now fully operational. To date, construction and infrastructure expenditure have exceeded $5.5 million. Value-adding processing is done on site. The farm and processing plant employ 8 permanent staff and up to 12 part-time staff. A planned $785,000 expansion of the processing facilities will include a new freezing room that is expected to provide five more jobs. "Environmentally Sustainable Aquafarming" is Coral Sea Farms' core principle. The farm devotes a 12-hectare area to water remediation.
The Australian Government encourages the expansion and growth of the aquaculture industry through funding and strategic initiatives such as its $3.5 million Aquaculture Industry Action Agenda and more recently through the creation of the Seafood Cooperative Research Centre to which the Government contributed $35.5 million.
Information: Coral Sea Farms, P.O. Box 84, Macknade, QLD 4850 Australia (email email@example.com, fax 07-4777-2793).
Source: GROWfish (Gippsland Aquaculture Industry Network, Inc., http://www.growfish.com.au/default.asp). GROWfish eNewsletter (firstname.lastname@example.org). Prawns are on at Coral Sea Farms (http://www.growfish.com.au/content.asp?contentid=8680). March 13, 2007.
Darwin, Northern Territories--Mud Crabs
The Darwin Aquaculture Centre has claimed a world's first: The breeding of mud crabs through their full life cycle from egg to plate. Aquaculture scientist Glenn Schipp says the key to the achievement has been the development of a suitable type of algae that is pumped from temperature controlled growing tanks directly into the crab ponds. Schipp says the Darwin Aquaculture Centre will have the capacity to produce enough mud crabs to meet Australian demand and allow exports to Southeast Asia. "The advantage of aquaculture is that you can produce crabs of a particular size on demand any time of the year," he said. "So farmers can target their production to particular times of the year, like Christmas or Easter."
Source: GROWfish (Gippsland Aquaculture Industry Network, Inc., http://www.growfish.com.au/default.asp). GROWfish eNewsletter (email@example.com). NT farm claims success in breeding mud crabs (http://www.growfish.com.au/content.asp?contentid=8661). March 10, 2007.
Farm For Sale
I am selling a modern, 25-hectare shrimp farm in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. All environmental and operating licenses are in order. Great infrastructure, only 30 kilometers from the city of Natal, the capital of the Rio Grande do Norte state. Will provide three months of management training and support. Cash flow: $100,000. Asking price: $600,000.
Source: Email to Shrimp Farming International from Magali Brustolin (firstname.lastname@example.org). Subject: Shrimp farm for sale in Natal?RN - Br. March 12, 2007.
Production of Shrimp Feed and Shrimp
India produces an estimated 190,000 metric tons of shrimp and prawn feed a year. The installed capacity exceeds 500,000 tons a year. It has 10 large feed mills (>3 tons/hour) and about 18 small feed mills (<1 tons/hour) that produce pelleted shrimp and freshwater prawn feeds. The Marine Product Export Development Authority (MPEDA), which promotes and develops seafood exports from India, says 12 more shrimp feed mills will be required in India in the next five years to meet the demand of rising production, especially in the western states, particularly in the state of Gujarat.
Marine shrimp farms in India produce about 100,000-120,000 tons of shrimp a year. Production has declined slightly in recent years because of disease problems with black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), reduced demand for shrimp in the Japanese market, dumping duties in the USA, and the bonds related to the dumping duties.
India is one of a few countries that produce black tiger shrimp. Only experimental culture of the Pacific white shrimp, P. vannamei, is allowed. There is limited production of the indigenous white shrimp, P. indicus.
India's production of the freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, has declined in recent years due to lack of freshwater resources and disease problems. Current production is believed to be about 25,000 metric tons.
Source: Aqua Feeds: Formulation and Beyond (www.feedware.com). Editor, Dr. Victor Suresh (email@example.com). Aqua Feeds in India. Volume 3, Issue 23, Page 5, 2006.
Prices Drop on Japanese Antibiotic Issue
Prices of Indonesian shrimp plunged 14% in the last week of February 2007, to $3.25 a kilogram [no information on market level or product form] because of decreasing demand in overseas markets. One of the causes of the price decline is Japan's charge that Indonesia's shrimp have excessive amounts of antibiotics. It is customary for Japanese buyers to refrain from placing new orders in March when many Japanese firms close their accounting year. Since demand usually picks up in April, prices are expected to recover to the $4.35 level.
Source: Seafood.com (an online, subscription-based, fisheries news service). Indonesian shrimp prices fall 14% in one week, due to Japanese rejection of 50 containers. Editor and Publisher, John Sackton (phone 781-861-1441, email firstname.lastname@example.org). March 9, 2007.
Macrobrachium Rosenbergii in the Moluku Islands
Hi, is anyone aware of the natural occurrence of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (the giant freshwater prawn) in the Maluku Islands (also known as the Molucca Islands)? I am aware of their occurrence on one island, Halmahera, but wonder if they occur elsewhere.
Also, is anyone aware of prawns occurring naturally in the Lesser Sunda Islands? According to a FAO factsheet, they are there, although this surprises me due to the lack of freshwater habitat?
Source: The Crust-L Mailing list (To subscribe, send an email to LISTPROC@VIMS.EDU. In the body of the email, put SUBSCRIBE CRUST-L). Subject: [CRUST-L:2550] Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Maluku Islands? Subject: [CRUST-L:2556] M. rosenbergii in Lesser Sunda Islands. From: Mark de Bruyn (email@example.com). March 19 and 22, 2007.
I live in Lebanon, and I am thinking of starting a shrimp farm. Where can I get seedstock?
Source: Emails to Shrimp News International from Laurna Kai (firstname.lastname@example.org) on March 17 and 19, 2007.
Australia's New BioSecurity Rules
Bangkok...Concerns over strict new Australian measures on shrimp exports have prompted Thai authorities to pressure the Australian government to reconsider its ruling. Thai authorities brought up the issue at a recent World Trade Organization meeting and raised it again during an ASEAN Closer Economic Relations (ASEAN-CER) meeting in Wellington, New Zealand, in early March 2007.
Thailand's request for the Australian government to reconsider the measures has been supported by a number of Asian countries including China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Sri Lanka.
Source: MCOT News. Thailand pressures Australia on shrimp barriers (http://etna.mcot.net/query.php?nid=28348). March 10, 2007.
Turn About Is Fair Play
The Thai Marine Shrimp Farmers' Association has called on the Thai Fishery Department to implement an Import Risk Analysis (IRA) on aquaculture products imported from Australia. The intent: to prevent the GAV and MoV shrimp viruses in Australia from spreading to Thailand. The association fears that the viruses will affect Thailand's $2.84 billion export industry that employes more than a million people. Suraphol Pratuangtum, president of the association, said a letter has been delivered to the Thai Fishery Department that calls for the retaliatory measure against Australia after BioSecurity Australia said it was going to implement rules that would limit Thai shrimp exports to Australia.
Source: The Nation. Plea to scrutinise Aust aqua-culture (http://nationmultimedia.com/breakingnews/read.php?newsid=30028933). March 9, 2007.
Production of Shrimp Feed and Shrimp
Thailand has 31 shrimp feed mills and 18 mills that produce both fish and shrimp feed.
Thailand produces 280,000-320,000 tons of marine shrimp annually, nearly 95% of it through intensive culture of the Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei. Once the flagship of Thai aquaculture, the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, is now produced only for live markets where large shrimp fetch premium prices.
Source: Aqua Feeds: Formulation and Beyond (www.feedware.com). Editor, Dr. Victor Suresh (email@example.com). Aqua Feeds in Thailand. Volume 3, Issue 23, Page 16, 2006.
Local Consumption--Dan Fegan
In the January/February 2007 issue of the Global Aquaculture Advocate, Dan Fegan, regional technical manager for aquaculture at Alltech Biotechnology Corp., Ltd. (natural feed additives), writes:
The potential for domestic shrimp consumption in Asia is enormous. For example, if farmed shrimp consumption could be raised to 500 grams per person per year in the countries charged with dumping, that market would be equivalent to over 1 million metric tons annually. In Thailand, it has been estimated that annual domestic consumption of farmed shrimp has reached almost 30,000 metric tons, or around 450 grams per person. In China, domestic consumption of shrimp is now close to or greater than the volume of shrimp exports.
Marketing shrimp locally gives farmers an alternative to the export market. Consumers find the small shrimp that are marketed locally affordable, and farmers improve their cash flow through shorter production times and more harvests per year. Partial harvesting strategies can also be adopted so that ponds yield a more regular income.
Fegan also said that the infectious myonecrosis virus was affecting Penaeus vannamei in Asia!
Source: The Global Aquaculture Advocate (http://www.gaalliance.org). Editor, Darryl Jory (firstname.lastname@example.org). Asian Farmers Optimistic After Rocky 2006/Asian Shrimp Culture Issues. Daniel Fegan (Alltech Biotechnology Corp., 209/1 CMIC Tower B, 17th Floor, Sukhumvit 21 Road (Asoke), Khlongtoey NuaWattana, Bangkok 10110 Thailand, phone 66-2-260-0888, fax 66-2-260-0866, email email@example.com). Volume 10, Issue 1, Page 68, January/February 2007.
Culver City...Sizzler (300 midscale casual dining restaurants worldwide) is making waves with its new Triple Shrimp Combo--a platter of scampi, a skewer of Cajun shrimp and a pair of stuffed Southwest shrimp. Priced at $9.99, the combo consists of five sauteed garlic shrimp scampi on a bed of rice pilaf, a skewer of shrimp dusted with Cajun spices and two crunchy Southwest shrimp stuffed with cheese and jalapenos, accompanied by Chipotle Ranch dipping sauce.
Information: Janet Ritter of Brad Ritter Communications, LLC, (phone 740-815-1790, email firstname.lastname@example.org).
Source: Yacht Vacations and Charters. Sizzler's New $3.99 Triple Shrimp Combo Makes Waves/Limited Time Offer Pairs Salad Bar with Shrimp Add-on (http://www.yachtchartersmagazine.com/read/346992.htm). March 8, 2007.
Maryland--Blue Crab Book
The Blue Crab: Callinectes sapidus, a Maryland Sea Grant Book, edited by Victor S. Kennedy and L. Eugene Cronin, will ship in late April 2007. With 800 pages, hundreds of drawings and photographs (some in color), plus subject and species indexes, the hardcover edition (8-1/2" x 11") costs $125.00 plus shipping and handling.
Chapter titles and authors are listed below:
Systematics and Evolution (A.B. Williams)
External Anatomy of Blue Crab Larvae (V.S. Kennedy)
Anatomy of the Post-Larval Blue Crab (V.S. Kennedy and L.E. Cronin)
Muscles and Neurons (C.K. Govind)
The Functional Anatomy of the Circulatory System (I.J. McGaw and C.L. Reiber)
Molting and Growth (S.G. Smith and E.S. Chang)
Reproduction Biology and Embryonic Development (P.R. Jivoff, A.H. Hines and L.S. Quackenbush)
Diseases, Parasites and Other Symbionts (J.D. Shields and R.M. Overstreet)
Osmoregulatory, Digestive and Respiratory Physiology (D.W. Towle and L.E. Burnett)
Environmental Physiology (R.A. Tankersley and R.B. Forward, Jr.)
Responses to Toxic Chemicals at the Molecular, Cellular, Tissue, and Organismal Level (M. Brouwer and R.F. Lee)
Biology of Larvae (C.E. Epifanio)
Ecology of Postlarval and Young Juvenile Blue Crabs (R.N. Lipcius, D.B. Eggleston, K.L. Heck, Jr., R.D. Seitz and J. van Montfrans)
Ecology of Juvenile and Adult Blue Crabs (A.H. Hines)
History of Blue Crab Fisheries on the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (V.S. Kennedy, M. Oesterling and W. A. van Engel)
Population Dynamics and Fisheries (M.J. Fogarty and R.N. Lipcius)
Source: Maryland Sea Grant. A Maryland Sea Grant Book/
The Blue Crab: Callinectes sapidus (http://www.mdsg.umd.edu/store/bc/). Victor S. Kennedy and L. Eugene Cronin, editors. Site visit on March 13, 2007.
On March 9, 2007, biotechnology firm Aqua Bounty Technologies, Inc., said it did not expect to meet its revenue forecasts for this year because of the slow pace of regulatory approval for its main product, an immune booster for shrimp. Aqua Bounty said it expected sales to grow strongly in 2008 as regulatory approvals come through. It said adoption in Asia, where 80 percent of the world's shrimp is produced, has been slow due to a lack of equipment to properly apply the booster to the feed. Aqua Bounty has an excellent financial position, with cash and investments of over $22 million.
Source: Reuters UK. Aqua Bounty waits on approvals for shrimp booster (http://investing.reuters.co.uk/news/articleinvesting.aspx?type=companyOutlooksNews&storyID=2007-03-09T073007Z_01_L09332448_RTRIDST_0_AQUA-BOUNTY-TRADING.XML). March 9, 2007.
Production of Shrimp and Shrimp Feed
Vietnam produces an estimated 320,000 tons of marine shrimp a year. Most of the production is tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in the Mekong Delta.
About 20 feed mills produce shrimp feed in Vietnam. The country has an estimated shrimp feed manufacturing capacity exceeding 500,000 tons a year. Currently it produces about 250,000 tons of shrimp feeds. Asian feed companies like Uni-President, Charoen Pokphand (CP) and Grobest are market leaders in the shrimp feed sector. A number of smaller feed mills owned by local entrepreneurs were started in the early 2000s, but few succeeded. Tomboy, owned by a French entrepreneur Mr. Frank Bodin, has performed extremely well among the smaller companies.
Almost all feed ingredients for shrimp feed need to be imported, resulting in high prices of around $1,000 to $1,200 a ton, among the highest in the world. This is a particular concern because pondside prices for shrimp have steadily fallen in recent years.
Source: Aqua Feeds: Formulation and Beyond (www.feedware.com). Editor, Dr. Victor Suresh (email@example.com). Aqua Feeds in Vietnam. Volume 3, Issue 23, Page 20, 2006.
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