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October 27, 2006
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Transport of Metabisulfite Across Cell Membranes
Can someone tell me what is happening on the cellular level when shrimp are treated with a solution of 7% sodium metabisulfite? Please recommend a book that explains the chemistry of the transport of metabisulfite across cell membranes.
Source: The Crust-L Mailing list (To subscribe, send an email to LISTPROC@VIMS.EDU. In the body of the email, put SUBSCRIBE CRUST-L). Subject: [CRUST-L:2271] energetics in shrimp cell membrane. From: Francisco Camino, a seafood quality control specialist in Brazil (email@example.com). October 15, 2006.
Shrimp Vaccine Research (also see Japan below)
1. The whitespot proteins VP19 and VP28 have been replicated in bacteria and used to vaccinate Penaeus monodon (injection, oral routes and immersion). Purified dsRNA and siRNA molecules were used as the vaccine agent. They induced a sequence-independent, antiviral immunity when injected in shrimp.
2. The efficacy of vaccines made from inactivated WSSV (whitespot syndrome virus, with and without immunostimulants or killed Vibrio penaeicida) and recombinant proteins of WSSV (VP26 & VP28) have been tested by intramuscular vaccination in kuruma shrimp, P. japonicus.
3. WSSV proteins VP28 and VP19 were replicated in silkworms using a baculovirus (HyNPV) expression system and fed to crayfish with significant effects.
4. Some work has also been reported on the development of vaccines against WSSV with peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide and glucan.
5. Three structural proteins of WSSV (VP36A, VP36B and VP31) have been isolated and used in vaccines with significant results.
6. VP19-antiserum and anti r-VP28 have been used to neutralize WSSV.
7. VP19 and VP28 proteins have been used as oral, immersion and injected vaccines against WSSV in crawfish (Procambarus clarkii). Vaccine-coated food pellets were fed to the crawfish for 25 days and then the crawfish were challenged with the muscle of WSSV-infected crayfish at a rate of two grams per individual for two days. The cumulative mortality was monitored for 25 days. Survival in the group given VP28 protein was 86%. The immersion group had survivals of 63%; the injected group, 91%.
8. The methanolic extracts of five different herbal medicinal plants fed orally as immunostimulants against WSSV in P. monodon resulted in survivals of 60%.
9. AntiTrVP28:19 egg yolk antibodies have been tested and found to neutralize shrimp whitespot in P. chinensis.
Source: AquaCulture Asia Pacific (Editor/Publisher, Zuridah Merican, email firstname.lastname@example.org, webpage www.aquaasiapac.com). Developing Vaccines Against WSSV. Rajeev Kumar Jha (email@example.com), Zi Rong Xu and Maddur Lingappa Umashankara. Volume 2, Number 5, Page 16, September/October 2006.
With farmed shrimp production on a plateau of 150,000 tons annually and competition from surrounding shrimp farming countries mounting, India hopes to revive its industry with the western white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei. A.J. Tharakan, president of the Seafood Exporters Association of India, has called for a meeting in October 2006 to look into the possibility of introducing more P. vannamei farming in India. The meeting will include various stakeholders in the industry, including farmers. The Exporters Association thinks the vannamei introductions should be made at large, capital-intensive farms, which represent about 20% of the industry. The less intensive farms would continue with P. monodon farming. Already two farms are working with vannamei on an experimental basis, and the results have been encouraging.
Source: The Financial Express. Shrimp industry confused over introducing Vannamei variety (http://www.financialexpress.com/fe_full_story.php?content_id=143523). Ajayan. October 16, 2006.
The World's Largest Shrimp Farm
In July 2006, after almost a decade of inactivity, PT Dipasena Citra Darmaja has restarted operations at two huge shrimp farms in Lampung, Sumatra: (1) Wahyuni Mandira and (2) Dipasena Citra Darmaja. With a land concession reported at 180,000 hectares, Dipasena has the potential for becoming the largest shrimp farm in the world.
The new management team at PT Dipasena Citra Darmaja includes:
Rudyan Kopot, President/Director
Dr. Nyan Taw, Senior Vice President of Aquaculture R&D
Wayan Agus Edhy, Operation and Marketing Director
Although the top management is new, the employees and 11,000 farmers have not changed. The two farms have a total of 21,660 individual plastic-lined ponds. Most ponds at Dipasena Citra Darmaja measure 2,000 square meters; those at Wahyuni Mandira, 2,500 m2. The farms were developed under the "nucleus estate" concept, which means Dipasena develops all the infrastructure--ponds, water control structures, hatcheries, feed mills and processing plants--and the farmers manage the growout ponds. They buy their postlarvae and feeds from the company and then sell their crop to the company for processing and export.
In August 2006, Rudyan Kopot, president and director, said that operations have restarted module by module and the target is to complete the reconstruction by the end of 2006. The processing plant, feed mill and hatchery are already operational. The aim is to produce up to 75,000 tons of shrimp a year!
The western white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, will be the primary species, until disease-free, giant tiger shrimp (P. monodon) become available.
Dipasena, which previously produced 16,000 tons of monodon a year, has been virtually idle following the financial crisis in Southeast Asia in 1998, which led to its takeover by the Indonesian Bank Restructuring Agency (IBRA). In 2005, the company was restructured and a new investor, Renaissance Capital Asia, injected $281 million into the farm.
Source: AquaCulture Asia Pacific (Editor/Publisher, Zuridah Merican, email firstname.lastname@example.org, webpage www.aquaasiapac.com). Dipasena Restarts. Volume 2, Number 5, Page 4, September/October 2006.
On October 16, 2006, Made L. Nurjana, director general of fish farming with the Ministry of Marine Resources and Fisheries, said Indonesia's production of farm-raised shrimp would reach 350,000 metric tons in 2006. That's an upward revision from an earlier prediction that said the figure would be lower than the 300,000 tons produced in 2005. Made said that around 60 percent of the output would come from intensive farms and 40 percent from traditional farms. Based on information received from Shrimp Club Indonesia, a shrimp farmers' organization that has offices in the country's major shrimp farming areas, Made said farmed shrimp production appears to be on the rise almost everywhere in Indonesia, even in areas once reported as "dead".
Source: Antara News. National shrimp output projected at 350,000 tons to be achieved (http://www.antara.co.id/en/seenws/?id=21703). October 16, 2006.
Caribbean Mariculture Products Limited
Caribbean Mariculture Products Limited grows the western white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). According to project manager, Noel Thompson, the joint initiative between the Jamaica Agricultural Development Foundation (JADF) and the University of the West Indies (UWI), has 145 acres of ponds on a 220-acre parcel located in Brampton, St. Catherine. The venture was initially set up in 1995 as 20 acres of ponds to demonstrate the viability of shrimp farming and was expanded to a commercial farm at the end of the 1990s. It turned its firms profit in 2001.
Disease hit shortly thereafter, and the company has spent the last two years recovering. Disease, however, is not the major hurdle facing Caribbean Mariculture, which produces an average of 23 tons of shrimp monthly, mostly for sale to hotels and restaurants. "It [the farm] is not financially viable at its current size," says Thompson. "Two hundred and fifty acres would be profitable. With the same staff and overhead costs, we could run a farm more than twice this size." But the area where the farm is located was recently zoned as residential, so Thompson can't expand there. Relocation is a possibility.
Source: Jamaica Gleaner. Foreigners reeling in profits from Jamaica's fishing waters (http://www.jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20061013/business/business4.html). Camilo Thame (email@example.com). October 13, 2006.
Eradicating Whitespot with RNA Interference (also see China above)
In 1988, small RNA molecules, around 20 base pairs long, were found to be profoundly important in gene regulation. This regulation includes deactivating the genes of invasive pathogens. Geneticists are still recovering from their chagrin at having overlooked this phenomenon for five decades. The first Nobel prizes for this technology have already been handed out.
In this investigation, the technology was used to induce gene silencing in Penaeus japonicus. After three injections, the virus was completely eradicated from WSSV-infected shrimp.
Source: Genetic Computation Limited (free online summaries of aquaculture genetics research). Editor, Roger Doyle (firstname.lastname@example.org). Hard-to-find papers. Gene therapy for WSSV infected Penaeus japonicus (http://www.genecomp.com/Oct_2006.htm). Item No. 552, October 2006. Original Source: Antiviral Research. Silencing shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genes by siRNA. J. Xu, F. Han and X. Zhang. In Press.
Where Are the Hatcheries?
Hi everybody, I'm starting a shrimp farm in the Philippines. I've been able to locate a bunch of feed suppliers, but have had no luck finding hatcheries on the island of Luzon. Can anybody help me out with names, phone numbers and addresses of hatcheries on Luzon? Also, if anyone knows of a supplier of SPF nauplii or broodstock in Asia or Africa, please contact me.
Source: The Shrimp List (a mailing list for shrimp farmers, "email@example.com"). Subject: [shrimp] P. monodon/P. japonicus. From: firstname.lastname@example.org. October 13, 2006.
Help With Intensive Shrimp Farming
Darganivijay@yahoo.ca: Does anyone know of a company that helps set up intensive shrimp farms in the Philippines?
Govindarajugs@yahoo.com: You can contact Mr. Ronaldo Gatilao or Mr. Ruffino at the CP Group, a Thai-based feed company, and they will help you. Let me know if you want their email address.
Leonidoctala@yahoo.com: Please contact me off list.
Source: The Shrimp List (a mailing list for shrimp farmers, "email@example.com"). Subject: Re: [shrimp] intensive shrimp farming. October 13-16, 2006.
Genus Sells SyAqua/Thailand
Genus PLC has sold its SyAqua hatchery in Thailand to a management buyout team for $1.9 million. "We are continuing to implement our strategy for disposal [of our SyAqua assets]. With Brazil and Thailand now sold, we are considering offers for the Mexican business," chief executive Richard Wood said. For the twelve months ended June 30, 2006, SyAqua Thailand generated revenues of $1.7 million and showed an operating loss of $1.7 million.
Source: Hemscott.com. Genus sells SyAqua Thailand shrimp business for 1.9 mln usd to MBO-led team (http://www.hemscott.com/news/latest-news/item.do?newsId=36483600170983). No Date (viewed on October 11, 2006).
Massachusetts--Shrimp Viruses and Bird Flu
Researchers at Replikins, Ltd., in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, have discovered that the whitespot and Taura viruses may be reservoirs for the peptide building blocks of H5N1--the bird flu virus!
Information: Sam Bogoch, Chairman, Replikins, Ltd., 38 the Fenway, Boston, MA 02215 USA (phone 617-536-9711, fax 617-536-0657, email firstname.lastname@example.org, webpage http://www.Replikins.com).
Source: PRnewswire.com. Advance Warning of H5N1 Influenza Outbreaks May Be Found in Shrimp Virus Reservoirs (http://www.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=104&STORY=/www/story/10-25-2006/0004459452&EDATE=). October 25, 2006.
Mississippi--Freshwater Prawn Conference
The United States Freshwater Prawn and Shrimp Growers Association (USFPSGA) will hold its next annual meeting and conference on December 8-9, 2006, at Opryland in Nashville, Tennessee, USA.
Information: Dolores Fratesi, USFPSGA, 655 Napanee Road, Leland, MS 38756 USA (phone 662-390-3528, webpage www.freshwaterprawn.org).
Source: USFPSGA Newsletter. USFPSGA Annual Conference. Volume 5, Issue 2, Fall 2006.
Rhode Island--University of Rhode Island
Is it safe to eat farm-raised shrimp?
Yes, provided it comes from USA shrimp farms that avoid antibiotics, hormones, mercury and PCBs, says Barry Costa-Pierce, professor of fisheries and aquaculture at the University of Rhode Island. He says imported farmed shrimp is another story. In Thailand, the world's top producer, farmers are allowed to use chemicals that result in shrimp that carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including E. coli and Salmonella. And these bugs can infect humans. For specific brands that are safe, check Seafood Choices Alliance (www.seafoodchoices.org).
Source: KansasCity.com. Food Safety/Shrimp problems loom large (http://www.kansascity.com/mld/kansascity/living/15724432.htm). October 11, 2006.