February 24, 2006
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United States Marine Shrimp Farming Program
Research in 2005
During its most recent fiscal year (October 2004 through September 2005), the United States Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP, funded by the United States Department of Agriculture and headquartered at the Oceanic Institute in Hawaii) focused on four objectives: stock improvement, disease control, sustainable farming technologies and marketing. In addition, it assisted USA shrimp farmers by providing broodstock, postlarvae, education/training and disease diagnostics.
• The selective breeding program developed a computerized pedigree database that was used to draw specific inferences about the estimated breeding values of its shrimp lines to a specific trait.
• The breeding program continued to develop and evaluate its TSV-resistant, growth, inbred and sentinel lines.
• Evidence is building that selection for TSV resistance does not adversely affect growth, as was previously thought, indicating that the lines can be bred for TSV resistance and growth.
• A first-generation, microsatellite-based, low-density linkage map (a shrimp map) was produced that can be used for mapping QTLs (quantitative trait loci) of economic importance, and construction on a second-generation map based on ESTs (expressed sequence tags) and SNPs (single nucleotide variations) was begun. DNA from the shrimp mapping families are available to any researcher interested in contributing markers to the development of a high density linkage map.
• Significant progress was made on the epidemiology and transfer mechanisms of NHP (necrotizing hepatopancreatitis). Research confirmed that multiple strains among geographic isolates of NHP exist based on sequences from the gryB region of the genome, and that NHP can be transferred through culture water using the USMSFP chronic infection assay method. A flagellated form of the bacterium indicates a mode of transmission independent of a specific host or vector. The infection is not transferred by cohabitation with infected live shrimp. Cannibalism of dead shrimp caused infections. Transmission rates were the lowest at the lowest (10 ppt) and highest (40 ppt) salinities. Survival was independent of salinity.
• Challenge studies against IMNV (infectious myonecrosis virus) were also initiated with 42 families from Sygen International. Survival of these families ranged from 20 to 100% indicating the potential for development of stocks resistant to this rapidly emerging disease.
• During fiscal year 2005, outbreaks of whitespot virus were identified in Guam, Brazil, Mexico and Saudi Arabia. New Taura virus variants arose in Venezuela and Indonesia, and Taura-C was detected in Nicaragua. NHP was identified in Jamaica. New diseases found included haplosporidian and intranuclear mirosporidian in Penaeus vannamei in Central America, a new enteric parvovirus in Penaeus indicus and P. monodon in East Africa, and a new HPV (hepatopancreatic parvovirus) strain in P. monodon from Southeast Asia and East Africa.
Sustainable Culture Technologies
• Partial Harvests: Modeling indicated the net return on existing systems could be increased significantly with partial harvests, but the optimum cropping rates and schedules are sensitive to growth rate of shrimp between 20 and 30 grams and biomass loading. The model indicated research is needed to confirm growth rates from 20 to 30 grams, and to larger sizes (40 grams), and to examine the effect of different densities, particularly on growth.
• At the Waddell Mariculture Center in South Carolina, particle filters are being used to help manage microbial communities. Turbidity is kept near 100 NTU (nephelometric turbidity units) in the super-intensive raceway prototype. Survival (83.5%) and food conversion ratios (1.36) of shrimp stocked at four grams were better than shrimp stocked at one gram (54.3%, 2.59) last year, but final biomass has not improved (6.35 kg/m3 in 2005, versus 6.66 kg/m3 in 2004).
• Pond trials demonstrated shrimp fed commercially available low protein feeds (30 and 31% crude protein) grow as well as shrimp fed high protein feeds (35 and 41% crude protein) if fed on an isonitrogenous basis, although feed conversion ratios were higher on the low protein feeds.
• The USMSFP produced and distributed 128,709 postlarvae as potential broodstock and 851,300 Kona-line animals for growout to 17 cooperating research, academic and industry partners. Animals went to seven domestic broodstock companies and four commercial production farms.
• The USMSFP also processed and reported 350 total disease diagnostic cases. Over 200 cases were for domestic farmers. The majority of cases (65%) were PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and RT-PCR with over 3,782 individual analyses conducted. Over 6,090 specimens were processed for histology and in situ hybridization.
• The USMSFP secured emergency funding from USDA-APHIS to conduct additional surveillance and epidemiology on the 2004 Taura virus outbreak in south Texas. With the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA, Center for Veterinary Medicine) and the Texas Shrimp Farmers Association, the USMSFP worked on approval of oxytetracycline, an antibiotic for use on domestic shrimp farms.
Information: Anthony C. Ostrowski, Ph.D., Director, U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program, The Oceanic Institute, Makapuu Point 41-202, Kalanianaole Highway, Waimanalo, HI 96795-1820 USA (phone 808-259-3109, fax 808-259-3121, email firstname.lastname@example.org, webpage www.usmsfp.org).
Source: USMSFP Website. Consortium Research Update FY2005. Editor, Paula Bender (phone 808-259-3193, fax 808-259-3121, email email@example.com, webpage www.usmsfp.org). Volume 12, Number 1, Page 1, January 2006.
Freestyle grabbing of government land for shrimp farming by ruling party leaders and the wealthy along with indiscriminate destruction of forests are the order of the day in coastal areas around Cox’s Bazar in southeast Bangladesh, despite efforts by the Forest Department and courts to stop the practice.
In one district, according to the Forest Department, about 12,000 out of 27,293 acres of forestland have fallen into the hands of land grabbers in the last four years, or so. The department has filed 458 cases against 1,843 encroachers in the last four years. Kush Kumar Baidya, Cox’s Bazar Forest Range Officer, said, "We are still filing cases but there has been little progress in either recovery of the lands or taking steps against the encroachers." Encroachment is continuing as the grabbed lands are not recovered and the culprits go unpunished, he said.
Source: The Daily Star (Committed to the People’s Right to Know). Grabbers in Cox’s Bazar feast on govt land, forest (http://www.thedailystar.net/2006/01/31/d60131070286.htm). Muazzem Hossain Shakil. January 31, 2006.
Niribili Fisheries, Ltd., is looking for a technician to produce a ton of bloodworms a day. Contact: Shariff Ishaque, Niribili Fisheries, Ltd., Cox’s Bazar, Chittangong, Bangladesh (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Source: AquaNic (The Aquaculture Network Information Center, a gateway to the world’s electronic aquaculture resources, http://aquanic.org/index.htm). World Aquaculture Society Employment Service (http://darc.cms.udel.edu/wases/wasesinfo.htm#jwe). Bloodworm (polychaetes) production technician (http://aquanic.org/jobs/jobinfo.asp?jobid=1867). January 28, 2006.
Netuno Gets $27 Million
Netuno Group, Brazil’s largest seafood exporter, has just closed a financing deal with BNDES Participações, a subsidiary of the Brazilian Development Bank, for $27 million. As a result BNDES will own 33% of the company. Netuno intends to use the funds to invest in the processing of tilapia and value-added shrimp. Netuno has a large shrimp farm in northeast Brazil and is not subject to dumping duties. Exports to the United States represent 60.9% of the company’s annual sales. European countries account for 13.5% and the domestic market adds 24.8%. Shrimp and lobster are Netuno Group’s major products.
Sources: 1. Seafood.com (an online, subscription-based, fisheries news service). Brazil’s NETUNO, major shrimp exporter, gets $27 million investment to expand production. Editor and Publisher, John Sackton (phone 781-861-1441, email email@example.com). February 3, 2006. 2. Bob Rosenberry, Shrimp News International, February 20, 2006.
My partner and I want to buy or rent a shrimp farm of less than 140 hectares. Contact: Ivan Alvarez Ortegon, Guayaquil, Ecuador (cell phone 094321956, email firstname.lastname@example.org).
Estoy buscando una camaronera en Ecuador de menos de 140 has. Mi socio y yo queremos comprar y/o alquilar una camaronera. Por favor aquellos interesados o los que tengan informacion acerca de este tema llamenme. Mi informacion personal se encuentra al final del correo electronico.
Source: The Shrimp List (a mailing list for shrimp farmers, "email@example.com"). Subject: [shrimp] Seeking shrimp farms in Ecuador/Buscando camaroneras. From: firstname.lastname@example.org. February 6, 2006.
A.J. Tharakan, president of the Seafood Exporters Association of India (SEAI), says the shortage of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) should make India seriously consider the introduction of the western white shrimp (P. vannamei) that’s popular in Thailand. The biggest hurdle to this is a regulation that limits shrimp production to 2-3 tons per hectare.
Source: The Financial Express (newspapers, India, online edition). Bring in vannamei, save the processing units, says SEAI (http://www.financialexpress.com/fe_full_story.php?content_id=116747). Ajayan. February 6, 2006.
Job Farming Tigers
For Creative Indians Only: B.Sc. and experience in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) farming, feed management, staff management, disease control and use of probiotics.
Location: Karnataka, India.
Date Posted: Monday, January 16, 2006.
Closing Date: Thursday, March 30, 2006.
Source: AquaNic (The Aquaculture Network Information Center, a gateway to the world’s electronic aquaculture resources, http://aquanic.org/index.htm). World Aquaculture Society Employment Service (http://darc.cms.udel.edu/wases/wasesinfo.htm#jwe). Technical supervisor in tiger prawn farm (http://aquanic.org/jobs/jobinfo.asp?jobid=1853). January 16, 2006.
Whitespot Detection Kit
The Department of Aquaculture, College of Fisheries, Mangalore, India, has developed a simple, farmer friendly, monoclonal antibody-based, rapid-dot kit for field level detection of whitespot in shrimp. The simple, ten-minute, field test does not require any special equipment and has a sensitivity similar to that of the upper limit of two-step PCR. It costs only $1.70 per sample. The kit works on PLs, adults and broodstock. It has been tested at Pancham Aqua Farms in Mumbai, at the Marine Products Export Development Authority’s broodstock collection centre in Chennai, at the Skyline shrimp hatchery in Kumta, and at Maritech Diagnostics in Chennai.
Source: Network of Aquaculture Centers in Asia-Pacific Webpage. Health: RapiDot Kit--Farmer friendly kit for WSSV detection (http://www.enaca.org/modules/news/article.php?storyid=717). Posted on behalf of Dr. K.M. Shankar (email@example.com) by Mohan. February 2, 2006.
Shrimp Farmer’s Hopes Washed Away
Nashori, a shrimp farmer, is devastated. The shrimp and fish in his two-hectare pond that he had planned to harvest in a matter of weeks were swept away by a massive flood that hit Semarang, on the central north coast of Java during the last week of January 2006.
At least 200 hectares of shrimp and fishponds in the Mangkang area of Tugu District, Semarang, were inundated by floodwater, which swept the ponds clean.
"It’s like this every wet season, but this year it has been worse. Nearly all the ponds are submerged. The fish and shrimp have definitely moved or been carried away by the floodwaters," said the 45-year-old Nashori.
The area of coastal ponds stretches for about 50 kilometers along the north coast.
Flooding and high tides are not the farmers’ only problems. Industrial waste often kills their fish and shrimp. Factories in Semarang dump their waste into rivers, which carry the waste to the sea. High tides then wash the pollutants into the shrimp ponds.
Source: Jakarta Post (English language newspaper, Jakarta, Indonesia). Shrimp farmers see hopes washed away (http://www.thejakartapost.com/detailnational.asp?fileid=20060202.D07&irec=6). Suherdjoko. February 3, 2006.
Thais Checking Things Out
The Thailand Board of Investment is sending a 30-member delegation to Myanmar in February 2006 to investigate the country’s potential for fish and shrimp farming. It will look at cold storage possibilities at Yangon’s Hlaingtharya Industrial Zone and at fish and shrimp farming sites in Kyauktan and Pandanaw.
Source: People’s Daily Online (newspaper, China, government). Thai delegation to study investment in Myanmar fish, prawn sector (http://english.people.com.cn/200602/06/eng20060206_240530.html). February 6, 2006.
Job for Hatchery Manager
We are a new, integrated shrimp company in the Sultanate of Oman. We are looking for a shrimp hatchery manager with fluency in English. We want a dedicated, hands-on, personsomeone willing to take charge of daily hatchery operations.
Applicants should have a minimum of five years of experience in shrimp hatchery management. Experience with SPF production methods and biosecurity technology is also required. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Source: The Shrimp List (a mailing list for shrimp farmers, "email@example.com"). Subject: [shrimp] Shrimp hatchery. From: firstname.lastname@example.org. February 4, 2006.
Arabian Shrimp Company
Arabian Shrimp Company--a joint venture that includes the Saudi Offset Limited Partnership, Aqua Farms Corporation, Aquad Company for Commerce, and the Arab Authority for Agriculture Investment and Development--is developing a 5,000-hectare integrated shrimp farm on the Red Sea north of Jazan, Saudi Arabia. The project is supported by the Saudi Ministry of Agriculture.
Ibrahim al Mishari, chairman of Arabian Shrimp Company, said that the shrimp farm was designed to protect the pristine nature of the Red Sea.
A company spokesperson said the broodstock ponds were stocked with animals from three suppliers and that the growout ponds were under construction. The hatchery will have PLs ready for stocking by April/May 2006, and the first harvest is planned for September/October 2006. When completed, the farm will employ 3,000, of which 1,000 will be women.
Source: TradeArabia News Service (business news and information). Arabian Shrimp Farm wins OECD award (http://www.tradearabia.com/tanews/newsdetails_snAGRI_article100779.html). February 18, 2006.
CaliforniaShrimp News International
The World Aquaculture Society Meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, attracted approximately 1,700 attendees and 140 exhibitors. It was a good meeting that included a couple of all-day sessions on shrimp farming. The session on the new shrimp farming technology (Belize Aquaculture-style, flocs) was probably the best attended session at the meeting.
A new working group, which you will be hearing more about, was formed to facilitate communications among those interested in super-intensive, floc-based shrimp farming. The group could not decide what to call itself. Someone in the crowd suggested "The Mother Flockers". If you’re interested in getting on a mailing list for more information on the groups’ activities, contact Yoram Avnimelech (email email@example.com).
Watch my Free News page for reports on the Flockers.
There were not many shrimp farmers at this WAS meeting, and attendance from outside the USA was slim. If I had to guess, I would say that 95 percent of the attendees were from the USA, mostly researchers and bureaucrats.
Buzz words heard at the WAS meeting in Las Vegas: "partial harvests" and "polychaetes".
Finally, as some of you may have discovered, my email and phone were dead from February 8 through February 16, 2006, and there was nothing I could do about it from Las Vegas. I’ll be able to pick up on any missed "Shrimp List" messages at the list website, but if you emailed any messages to Shrimp News during that period, please send them again.
Source: Bob Rosenberry, Shrimp News International, February 19, 2006.
Ca Mau Province
In 2005, the southernmost province of Ca Mau produced 96,000 tons of farmed shrimp, 30% of the country’s production. Export earnings from shrimp exceeded $500 million. The province has more than 900 shrimp hatcheries, producing six billion postlarvae a year, but the hatcheries can only meet 50% of the demand from local shrimp farmers. [The other 50% comes from hatcheries along the central coast of Vietnam. Although there are some farms in Vietnam producing Penaeus vannamei, most hatcheries and farms produce tiger shrimp, P. monodon.]
Sources: 1. Nhan Dan (the newspaper of the Communist Party of Vietnam). Southernmost province leads country in shrimp farming (http://www.nhandan.com.vn/english/business/040206/business_south.htm). February 4, 2006. 2. Bob Rosenberry, Shrimp News International, February 19, 2006.
Shrimp Prices Rocketing
Prices for medium-sized shrimp from Vietnam’s Mekong Delta have skyrocketed, and processing plants have been hard-pressed to find raw material. Medium-sized shrimp now sell for $7.2 a kilo, up 25 to 35 percent from normal prices. According to Ho Quoc Luc, chairman of the Vietnam Association of Seafood Exporters and Producers, the shortage is likely to persist until May 2006.
Source: ThanhnienNews.com (the flagship publication of the Vietnam National Youth Federation). Shortfall sends shrimp prices rocketing (http://www.thanhniennews.com/business/?catid=2&newsid=12439). Sai Gon Giai Phong (translated by Ngoc Hanh). February 5, 2006.