April 7, 2006
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A New Maturation Feed for Shrimp Broodstock
At "Aquaculture America 2006", the recent (February 2006) World Aquaculture Society Meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, I interviewed Tony Smith, managing director of Dragon Feeds, Ltd., a Welsh company that announced a new shrimp broodstock feed at the meeting, a feed based on marine worms.
A Dragon Feeds flier distributed at the meeting said: We are now entering a new phase of development and are producing feeds from a pilot mill with commercial capabilities. This is a forerunner to a project between Dragon Feeds and G.E. Energy, the big USA corporation, to develop a new feed mill with a capacity of 500,000 tons per year using surplus steam heat and power from a revolutionary gas turbine power station based in South Wales. The mill will be processing 100,000 tons per year of polychaetes produced from our farms in Europe.
Shrimp News: Tell me about your company and your products for shrimp farmers.
Tony Smith: We've been farming polychaetes since 1998, mostly as bait for the sport fishing industry. We've also sold some live, fresh and frozen polychaetes to shrimp hatcheries. We decided that the best way to service that market would be with a processed broodstock feed made from polychaetes. The product that we're launching here at the show is a complete diet for shrimp broodstock that does not require any other supplements. We hope to have the product on the market in the next six weeks.
It will be the only complete maturation feed on the market. Others claim 60 to 75% replacement of live feeds, mainly because they lack polychaetes. This product is a 100% replacement because it includes polychaetes. Our early trials show that Penaeus vannamei mature and spawn on this diet. Other trials are taking place around the world. Because it's such a nutritious processed feed (less leaching), you don't need to use as much of it as you do with other maturation feeds.
Shrimp News: How do you process the worms?
Tony Smith: To preserve the nutritional quality of our ingredients, we do what's called "cold processing", which means our temperatures never go above 80°C. We put the worms into the feeds as a puree, as a wet product, mixed with the dry ingredients. We also put fishmeal, mussels and squid meal in there, so it has a good strong fishy odor. It's a huge attractant. It's a three millimeter dry pellet (about 13% water), packaged in five-kilo, aluminum foiled, nitro-flushed packs in a plactic bucket with measuring cup and with a shelf life at room temperature of twelve months. Shrimp are messy eaters, but when they drop our pellets, they pick them up again because they remain very stable in the water.
Shrimp News: Tell me a little about the farming process.
Tony Smith: Since 1998, we've improved production from less than one kilo per square meter to five kilos per square meter. The worms grow in seawater, in shallow sand beds. We spawn our broodstock in April. From egg to harvest, it takes seven months to produce a worm. We grow through the spring, summer and autumn, and harvest in the winter. The average harvest size is about seven grams, about six inches long. What's great about these animals is that they're detrital feeders. They feed on whatever settles to the floor of the ocean. Worms will feed on the worthless trimmings from a fish processing plant. Our tanks average one hundred meters by ten meters. Right now, we're building some new tanks in Europe that are 500 meters by 15 meters. We have proprietary, automatic harvesters. We started with wild animals, but over the past fifteen years, we've developed our own captive broodstock. We've taken survival rates from 3% to 80%. We have one female that produced seven million eggs. If we hatched all those eggs and grew them out, they would produce seventy tons of product. You don't need a whole lot of broodstock. We select for fast growth and big animals.
We're working on postlarvae feeds! They are currently under trial.
Information: Tony Smith, Managing Director, Dragon Feeds, Ltd., Units 43--44 Endeavour Close, Port Talbot, South Wales, United Kingdom (phone 44-1639-896777, fax 44-1639-883173, email email@example.com).
Conference Information: John Cooksey, World Aquaculture Conference Management, 2423 Fallbrook Place, Escondido, CA 92027 USA (phone 760-432-4270, fax 760-432-4275, email firstname.lastname@example.org, webpage www.was.org).
Source: Tony Smith, interview by Bob Rosenberry, Shrimp News International. Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. February 16, 2006.
Cell Turnover Rates in Crustacean Blood
Hi, I was wondering if anyone could point me to some literature that discusses cell turnover rates in decapod crustacean blood and/or organ and muscle tissue. I am specifically interested in finding out which tissues in decapod crustaceans proliferate regularly and have a short functional lifespan.
Source: The Crust-L Mailing list (To subscribe, send an email to LISTPROC@VIMS.EDU. In the body of the email, put SUBSCRIBE CRUST-L). Subject: [CRUST-L:1771] (No subject). From: Glenn (email@example.com). March 29, 2006.
Clubs, Machetes, Brickbats and Crowbars
On March 26, 2006, fifteen people, including four policemen, were injured in a clash over possession of a shrimp farm in Khulna, in southwestern Bangladesh. According to eyewitnesses, hoodlums hired by Majid Goldar launched an attack on villagers who resisted his illegal occupation of the shrimp farm. Both groups used clubs, machetes, brickbats and crowbars during the clash. Police hurled six tear gas shells and charged with batons held high to disperse the unruly people who were locked in the clash for over half an hour. Police arrested Majid, who masterminded the attack, and deployed additional security forces to protect the village.
Source: The Daily Star (committed to the "People's Right to Know"). 15 hurt as villagers clash in Khulna (http://www.thedailystar.net/2006/03/27/d60327100180.htm). March 27, 2006.
Laboratory of Aquaculture at the Artemia Reference Center
In a recent study, a standardized intramuscular inoculation procedure was used to evaluate the effects of high water temperature on the virological and clinical outcome of whitespot.
The study results showed that raising water temperature to 33°C after whitespot inoculation was sufficient to prevent WSSV-induced mortality. Using high water temperatures before inoculation had no protective effect.
The shrimp kept at 33°C after inoculation were negative for WSSV, which demonstrated that infection, or at least the replication of the virus, was blocked by the high water temperature.
Source: The Global Aquaculture Advocate (http://www.gaalliance.org). Editor, Darryl Jory (firstname.lastname@example.org). High Water Temperature Affects WSSV Management. Victoria Alday-Sanz, Ph.D. (Aquatic Animal Health Consultant, Otterstraat 70 9200, Dendermonde, Belgium, email email@example.com). Coauthors: C.M. Escobedo-Bonilla, M.M. Rahman, M. Corteel, J.J. Dantas-Lima, M.B. Pensaert, H.J. Nauwynck, M. Wille and P. Sorgeloos. Volume 9, Issue 1, Page 74, February/March 2006.
In March 2006, at a national shrimp exhibition in Natal Province, Somsak Paneetatyasai, president of the Thai Shrimp Association, and Itamar Rocha, president of the Brazilian Shrimp Farmers Association, floated the idea of a global shrimp producers organization to coordinate production and harvests. Rocha said that shrimp farmers in Indonesia, Colombia, Mexico, Honduras and Venezuela had shown interest in the plan. He said that Ecuador was interested, but wanted the group to operate at the company level, rather than at the country level.
Information: Itamar de Paiva Rocha, President of the Brazilian Shrimp Farmers Association and President of MCR Aquaculture, Ltda., Av. Flávio Maroja, 39 Tambiá, João Pessoa, PB CEP 58020-630 Brasil (phone 55-83-222-3561, fax 55-83-222-4538, email firstname.lastname@example.org, webpage www.mcraquacultura.com.br).
Source: Seafood.com (an online, subscription-based, fisheries news service). Idea of global shrimp producers organization floated at FENACAM conference in Brazil. Editor and Publisher, John Sackton (phone 781-861-1441, email email@example.com). March 30, 2006.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Aquaculture Co., Inc.
Started in November 2005, Saipan Aquaculture Co., Inc., is the first shrimp farm in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, a nation of fourteen tropical islands in the western Pacific Ocean. Owned and managed by Pellegrino Holdings, the farm expects its first harvest of 1,200 pounds of specific pathogen-free Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) soon. Pellegrino said the farm would sell the harvested shrimp locally and export postlarvae to farmers in other countries.
Right now, Pellegrino said that he buys his broodstock from the University of Guam. In six months to a year, he hopes that the farm will be self-sufficient in broodstock. "That's the reason why we put up our own hatchery. We don't want to keep buying from outside. We will supply our own needs and we will export postlarvae," he said. The company has invested over $200,000 in its hatchery and farm and expects to spend another $300,000 to complete its business plan.
Source: Saipan Tribune (newspaper, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). Saipan Aquaculture to harvest 40K shrimps (http://www.saipantribune.com/newsstory.aspx?cat=1&newsID=56227). Marconi Calindas. April 1, 2006.
Intern Position Open
An intern position for an undergraduate or postgraduate student is open at a semi-intensive shrimp farm near Barahona. The owner is experimenting with several IMR (intense microbial reuse) ponds and needs an intern or two to assist the farm manager. Interns will receive travel expenses to and from the Dominican Republic, a room and a stipend.
Information: David Drennan, 7339 NW 54 Street, RD# 10531, Miami, Florida 33166 USA (phone 809-470-0416, fax 809-616-8619, cell 809-327-7945, email firstname.lastname@example.org).
Source: Email to Shrimp News International from Cheryl Shew (email@example.com) at Zeigler Bros., Inc., on March 31, 2006.
Japonicus For Sale
At the end of April 2006, we will have Penaeus japonicus postlarvae for sale from our hatchery in northeastern Greece. Information: Fernando Castro (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Source: The Shrimp List (a mailing list for shrimp farmers, "email@example.com"). Subject: [shrimp] Japonicas PLs. From: firstname.lastname@example.org. April 6, 2006.
Arabian Shrimp Company and Raytheon Company
Arabian Shrimp Company--a joint venture that includes the Saudi Offset Limited Partnership [Raytheon Company], Aqua Farms Corporation, Aquad Company for Commerce and the Arab Authority for Agriculture Investment and Development--is developing a 5,000-hectare integrated shrimp farm on the Red Sea north of Jazan, Saudi Arabia. The project is supported by the Saudi Ministry of Agriculture.
Raytheon Company, a USA corporation with sales of $21.9 billion in 2005 and an industry leader in defense and government electronics, space, information technology, technical services and special mission aircraft, supplied shrimp technology and training for the project.
Information: Guy Shields (phone 978-858-5246), Raytheon Company (http://www.raytheon.com).
Source: 1. TradeArabia News Service (business news and information). Arabian shrimp farm wins OECD award (http://www.tradearabia.com/tanews/newsdetails_snAGRI_article100779.html). February 18, 2006. 2. PRNewswire.com (online news releases). Raytheon's Saudi Offset Limited Partnership Program Earns International Award (http://www.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=104&STORY=/www/story/03-27-2006/0004327507&EDATE=). March 27, 2006.
Florida-AREA, Webpage for Aerator
AREA, which supplies shrimp farms and hatcheries with aeration and heating/chilling systems, has created a website for its new "Modern Air" aerator. Want to know how much it costs? Want to know what you get for your money? Go to www.modernairaerator.com. In the tabs across the top of the page, look for "Shrimp Production", first click on Page 1, then on page 2.
Source: Site visit on April 3, 2006.
Mass Mortalities, Prices Soar
Mass mortalities occur on shrimp farms in the Mekong River Delta, the center of the country's huge shrimp farming industry.
Ca Mau Province, the biggest producer in the Delta, reports losses of 20 to 80 percent from hundreds of thousands of hectares of ponds. Thousands of farmers cannot pay their bank loans.
Because of the shortage, prices to the farmer have jumped to $10 a kilo. The shortage is forecast to last until mid-May or June 2006, when the next crop is due. Seafood processors worry about the shortage lasting longer than predicted.
[The cause of the mortalities was not given.]
Sources: 1. Vietnam Net Bridge (a state-owned enterprise within the Vietnam Post and Telecommunications Corporation). Prices soar, shrimp die, plants thirsty for materials (http://english.vietnamnet.vn/wo/2006/04/556233/). Lao Dong. April 2, 2006. 2. Bob Rosenberry, Shrimp News International, April 2, 2006.
Moana Technologies, LLC
Moana Technologies, LLC, of Kona, Hawaii, USA, has initiated two agreements with the Fisheries Ministry to distribute its SPF (specific pathogen-free) black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) seedstock in southern Vietnam. Moana Technologies, a producer of genetically improved P. monodon broodstock and seedstock, believes its products and technology will "revolutionize the black tiger shrimp industry" in Vietnam. Moana is discussing similar projects with Thailand, Indonesia, India and China and has also developed a large portfolio of related technologies that it intends to commercialize.
Source: Fish Farming International (http://www.fishfarming.co.uk). Editor, Kenny McCaffrey (email@example.com). Hawaii Deal Safeguards Vietnamese Black Tigers (firstname.lastname@example.org). Volume 33, Number 3, Page 24, March 2006.
At a shrimp farming workshop in Ho Chi Minh City sponsored by the Overseas Vietnamese Business Club and the US-Viet Nam Trade Centre (Seattle, Washington, USA), Tran Van Nguyen, a biochemist and president of the Stanford Technology Network Company (San Jose, California, USA), discussed USA methods for the "industrial cultivation of safe shrimp" while protecting the environment and preventing disease.
Source: VNA (Vietnam News Agency, the Ministry of Culture and Information). US shares methods for safe shrimp cultivation (http://www.vnagency.com.vn/NewsA.asp?LANGUAGE_ID=2&CATEGORY_ID=30&NEWS_ID=192771). March 29, 2006.